An X-Ray Topographic Analysis of the Crystal Quality of Globally Available SiC Wafers
We present herein a first comparative analysis of the quality of 50 mm and 75 mm diameter SiC wafers, purchased directly from vendors across the world, types including the most widely available configurations. Large Area White Beam Synchrotron Back Reflection X-Ray Topography was used to analyse selected ~1cm2 regions at various locations on up to 10 different bulk SiC wafers. The study concentrated particularly on the density and distribution of threading screw dislocations (TSDs). We also examined all wafers for basal plane dislocation (BPDs) densities and distributions. Alarmingly large variation in wafer quality was observed. TSD densities vary from a minimum of 0 cm-2 (in a-plane material) to values as large as over 2,000 cm-2 on some n-type 4H-SiC wafers. TSD densities on individual wafers can also vary by similar magnitudes, e.g. 500cm-2 to 2,500 cm-2 on two regions only 2 cm apart on a 50 mm diameter wafer. Computer-based image process analysis was used to present a statistical analysis of the distributions of defects. For example algorithms created in MATLAB®, Image Processing Toolbox, isolated possible TSD locations allowing rapid counting to be performed. These counts were confirmed by manual counting of selected unmodified images.
N. Wright, C.M. Johnson, K. Vassilevski, I. Nikitina and A. Horsfall
I. Brazil et al., "An X-Ray Topographic Analysis of the Crystal Quality of Globally Available SiC Wafers", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 556-557, pp. 227-230, 2007