Grain Boundary Atomic Structures in SrTiO3 and BaTiO3
SrTiO3 bicrystals with various types of grain boundaries were prepared by joining two single crystals at high temperature. By using the bicrystals, we examined their current-voltage characteristics across single grain boundaries from a viewpoint of point defect segregation in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. Current-voltage property in SrTiO3 bicrystals was confirmed to show a cooling rate dependency from annealing temperature, indicating that cation vacancies accumulate due to grain boundary oxidation. The theoretical results obtained by ab-initio calculation clearly showed that the formation energy of Sr vacancies is the lowest comparing with Ti and O vacancies in oxidized atomosphere. The formation of a double Schottky barrier (DSB) in n-type SrTiO3 is considered to be closely related to the accumulation of the charged Sr vacancies. Meanwhile, by using three types of low angle boundaries, the excess charges related to one grain boundary dislocation par unit length was estimated. In this study, we summarized our results obtained in our group.
S.-J.L. Kang, M.Y. Huh, N.M. Hwang, H. Homma, K. Ushioda and Y. Ikuhara
T. Yamamoto et al., "Grain Boundary Atomic Structures in SrTiO3 and BaTiO3", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 558-559, pp. 851-856, 2007