Advanced Structural Materials III

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Authors: Jien Wei Yeh, Yu Liang Chen, Su Jien Lin, Swe Kai Chen
Abstract: A high-entropy alloy (HEA) has been defined by us to have at least five principal elements, each of which has an atomic concentration between 5% and 35%. In the exploration on this new alloy field, we find that HEAs are quite simple to analyze and control, and they might be processed as traditional alloys. There exist many opportunities to create novel alloys, better than traditional ones in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we review the basic microstructural features of HEAs and discuss the mechanisms of formation. Instead of multiple intermetallic phases, the HEAs tend to form simple solid solution phases mainly of cubic crystal structure, especially at elevated temperatures. This tendency is explained by the high entropy effect based on the simple relation: (Gmix = (Hmix – T(Smix, and the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, nanostructures and amorphous phases are easily formed in HEAs. This tendency is explained by kinetics theory as due to slow atomic diffusion.
Authors: Ana Lilia Leal-Cruz, Martin I. Pech-Canul
Abstract: CVD silicon nitride (Si3N4) is typically produced from gas or liquid precursors containing nitrogen and silicon. The method using Na2SiF6(s) as silicon solid precursor to produce films/coatings, reinforcements and powders of silicon nitride by CVD has been recently proposed in the literature. In this investigation, a thermodynamic study is carried out using the FactSage Thermochemical Software and Databases, in order to explain the phenomena associated to the synthesis of Si3N4 with Na2SiF6 as solid precursor. Accordingly, CVD diagrams for Na2SiF6, SiF4, SiF3, SiF2, SiF, and Si both with N2 and NH3 are constructed using such a software. Thermodynamically Si3N4 can be produced from SiF4(g) or Na2SiF6(s) with ammonia. Although thermodynamic considerations show that Si3N4 cannot be produced with the use of nitrogen, experimental results in this investigation show that it is formed with both ammonia and nitrogen.
Authors: Carlos Merizalde, Jose María Cabrera, Jose Manuel Prado
Abstract: Semi-solid materials (SSM) in the thixotropic state behave like liquids, i.e they show low or null shear resistance and, at the same time, they behave like solids as do not fall to pieces under applied forces. At present, the potential advantages and industrial applications of these materials are well recognized, in particular for the production of Al-alloy components for the aerospace and automotive sectors. This work is focused on the evaluation and characterization of the thixotropic behaviour of a metal mixture in the semi-solid state obtained by “Compocasting”. The mixture is obtained by mixing spherical solid Cu particles with a liquid eutectic tin-lead alloy. Measurements of the time-dependence of the viscosity of the mixture using an instrumented rheometer showed that, after mechanical stirring, the slurry acquires thixotropic properties. The best conditions to obtain such mixture are presented. Additionally, once the mixture is cooled down, the material is reheated and then tested in a laboratory backward extrusion process. The behaviour of the material is analysed on the basis of the microstructure obtained, and the process parameters considered.
Authors: A. Mani-Medrano, Armando Salinas-Rodríguez
Abstract: The effects of tensile deformation on the amount of hcp phase formed during a 3 hour isothermal aging at 800 °C is studied using in-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the start of the isothermal martensitic transformation during aging of this material is delayed by prior plastic deformation. Nevertheless, the total amount of hcp phase present in the microstructure at the beginning of aging increases at a continuously decreasing rate due to stress-assisted transformation. This behavior is attributed to the relieving of internal stresses produced by plastic deformation prior to aging. Finally, during the last stage of aging, the amount of hcp phase in the microstructure increases as a result of isothermal martensitic transformation. It is suggested that the presence of mechanically-induced hcp phase during aging inhibits the thermally activated nucleation process that leads to the isothermal martensitic transformation.
Authors: Emmanuel Gutiérrez C., Armando Salinas-Rodríguez, Enrique Nava-Vázquez
Abstract: The effects of heating rate and annealing temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold rolled Al-Si, low C non-oriented electrical steels are investigated using SEM metallography and uniaxial tensile tests. The experimental results show that short term annealing at temperatures up to 850 °C result in microstructures consisting of recrystallized ferrite grains with sizes similar to those observed in industrial semi-processed strips subjected to long term batch annealing treatments. Within the temperature range investigated, the grain size increases and the 0.2% offset yield strength decreases with increasing temperature. It was observed that the rate of change of grain size with increasing temperature increases when annealing is performed at temperatures greater than Ac1 (~870 °C). This effect is attributed to Fe3C dissolution and rapid C segregation to austenite for annealing temperatures within the ferrite+austenite phase field. This leads to faster ferrite growth and formation of pearlite when the steel is finally cooled to room temperature. The presence of pearlite at room temperature decreases the ductility of samples annealed at T > Ac1.
Authors: Luis A. Bretado-Aragón, Dora A. Cortés-Hernández, José C. Escobedo-Bocardo, J.M. Almanza-Robles, J.Ivan Escalante G.
Abstract: Both solid-state reaction and glass-ceramic methods are used to obtain bioactive materials (CaSiO3) with different concentrations of MgO (6, 8, and 10 wt %) on the basis of the stoichiometric composition of CaO·SiO2. The in vitro bioactivity assessment is performed by immersing samples in SBF (simulated body fluids) for different periods of time. The analysis of the materials before immersion indicates the presence of different phases (akermanite, wollastonite and diopside) in the materials obtained by the solid state reaction method. It is possible to obtain wollastonite with incorporation of magnesium in its structure ((Ca, Mg)·SiO6) by the glass-ceramic method. The results obtained after immersing the samples in SBF indicate that a Ca, P-rich layer is formed on all the materials tested, even in those containing a high quantity of MgO. However, the layer formed in the MgO-free CaSiO3 ceramic is thicker than that formed in the MgO-containing materials.
Authors: Claus Guerra-Amaro, M. Hinojosa, E. Reyes-Melo, V. González
Abstract: In the present work we discuss the self-affine properties of the fracture surfaces of sodalime glass obtained under quasi-static conditions. The fracture surfaces are generated using a threepoint bending system in normal room conditions and under high humidity conditions. The surfaces were recorded both by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, and their selfaffine properties are characterized using the Variable Bandwidth method. For both conditions it is observed that the major part of the fracture surface is occupied by the mirror zone. On the other hand, the self-affine analysis reveals that for both conditions the roughness exponent has values centred at around 0.58 with moderate dispersion, in agreement with previous results. Our findings support the hypothesis of the existence of a characteristic roughness exponent for quasi-static fracture with a value that is significantly lower than the value of 0.8 reported for rapid fracture conditions.
Authors: E. Trejo E., J.A. García-Hinojosa, M.K. Surappa, E. Rodríguez
Abstract: A study of the effect of strontium on some solidification parameters, such as eutectic nucleation temperature, eutectic growth temperature, eutectic undercooling temperature and eutectic undercooling time, has been carried out using thermal analysis for a composite reinforced with 15 vol. % SiCP and, for comparison, for an A356 aluminum alloy. The composite is prepared by the melt stirring technique with a SiC particle size of 38 μm. Thermal analysis results show that the presence of SiCP in the unmodified A356 aluminum alloy increases the eutectic growth temperature (TE) and the eutectic nucleation temperature (TNucl); on the contrary, SiCP decreases the eutectic undercooling temperature (θ) and the eutectic undercooling time (tE). These phenomena suggest that SiC particles give favorable conditions for the growth of eutectic silicon. On the other hand, the modification with strontium of the composite material, although showing basically the same effect on the eutectic parameters as the one described for the A356 aluminum alloy, brings about certain differences due to the presence of the SiC particles. Microstructural analysis shows that the eutectic structures in the composite are coarser than those of the matrix alloy and they do not have the classic fibrous eutectic shape obtained in the matrix alloy. For the matrix alloy, when the Sr concentration increases beyond the quantity required to obtain a well-modified structure, the eutectic structure suffers a gradual coarsening or a reversion from fine fibrous silicon to coarser silicon; subsequently, when the Sr concentration is higher than 0.068%, Al2Si2Sr particles are produced. In the composite material there is also a gradual coarsening of the eutectic structure, although the appearance of Al2Si2Sr particles is just seen when the Sr concentration reaches 0.106%.
Authors: José Lemus-Ruiz, J.J. Ávila-Castillo, R. García-Estrada
Abstract: Cemented tungsten carbides are industrially one of the most used composite materials as cutting tools, wear parts and replacements of standard materials for tools, dies and machine components. This work focuses on various aspects of diffusion bonding of tungsten carbide to AISI 304 stainless steel using a Ni-foil interlayer. WC/Ni/AISI 304 combinations were diffusion bonded at 1000°C using different holding times under argon atmosphere. The microstructure characterization of the resulting interfaces was carried out by SEM and EPMA. The results show that successful joining between WC and AISI 304 steel is achieved by the formation of a diffusion zone at both ends of the Ni foil. All WC/Ni/AISI 304 samples have been joined with no severe interfacial cracking or porosity at the interface. The joint strength is determined by four-point bending testing, a maximum of 210 MPa for samples joined at 1000 °C for 60 minutes has been achieved. These results indicate that there is a strong relationship between the thickness of the diffusion interface and the mechanical strength of the joints.
Authors: H. Hernández-Moreno, Francis Collombet, Bernard Douchin, Peter Davies, Jorge Luis González
Abstract: This paper describes a technique to fabricate instrumented composite cylinders made by the filament winding process and based on the insertion of Bragg grating sensors contained in an optical fiber, so that real time monitoring of the temperature and strain response can be made. The main advantage of this method is that, for the first time, the strain response of the wound layers as a function of time and temperature can be monitored during fabrication without alteration of the composite structure, since the sensor is a filament itself. The sensor data reveals the existence of several phenomena related to the manufacturing process and material response. The results show that during the curing stage of the fabrication of the composite cylinders there is a dimensional contraction without change in temperature which indicates that a material transformation occurs, and also that at the last stage there is a residual compressive strain which may affect the in-service behavior of the composite cylinder.

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