The catalytic combustion technique was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. In this paper, we report that carbon nanofibers were synthesized by ethanol catalytic combustion technique. The as-grown products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the products have a mass of carbon nanofibers. However, morphology and microstructure of carbon nanofibers are affected by synthesis conditions, such as stability of flames and sampling time, sampling temperature etc. Different Influence factors were depicted in detail. Ethanol catalytic combustion technique offer a simple method to synthesize carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, it also has some advantages, such as flexible synthesis conditions, simple setup, and environment-friendly.