Growth and Characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Crystals by a Single-Step Low-Temperature Process
Relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) crystals were grown at low temperature by a single-step hydrothermal process, using the mixture of PbO, MgO and Nb2O5 as precursors. The precursors were just heated to 150 oC for 24 h. The effect of the KOH concentration on the morphology and microstructure of PMN crystals was systematically investigated. The optimum KOH concentration was found to be 11M, which led to the stabilization of the perovskite crystals against the pyrochlore phase, and to the growth of high-quality PMN crystals suitable for subsequent characterization. According to morphological evolution during the reaction, two possible growth mechanisms are proposed. When the KOH concentration is 11M, at the early stage of the reaction, the starting materials dissolve, and then promote the formation of spherical intermediate pyrochlore phase followed by the formation of primary cubic PMN crystals. At the same time, a platelet-shaped intermediate pyrochlore phase also forms and then grows into larger platelet-shaped PMN crystals.
Young Won Chang, Nack J. Kim and Chong Soo Lee
X. L. Chen and H. Q. Fan, "Growth and Characterization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Crystals by a Single-Step Low-Temperature Process", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 561-565, pp. 2059-2062, 2007