Nb-Si based in-situ composites have great potential for the application of high temperature structure components. In this paper, the influence of microstructure on the compression behavior of Nb-Si in-situ composite forged at high temperature was studied. The alloy with nominal composition of Nb-12Si-24Ti-4Cr-4Al-2Hf was consumable arc-melted, and then isothermal forged at 960°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the microstructure, composition and phases. The compressive behaviors at 1250°C were carried out by Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator. The results showed that the microstructures were inhomogenous in the different sections of the ingot, and no evident directional texture formed, and the main phases were niobium solid solution, Nb5Si3 and Ti5Si3. However, no macro-elements segregation in the ingot was observed. The compression strength was in the range of 140-360MPa. BSE observation showed that irregular-shaped Nb5Si3 and Ti5Si3 phases distributed in Nb solid solution and the size of Nb5Si3 in three tested samples was 10μm. Large size of eutectoid texture existed in the sample with strength of ~140MPa. On the contrary, in the sample with higher strength of 360MPa, eutectoid structures were hardly detected. The results suggested that the strength decreased gradually with size increase of eutectoid structure.