Two-Step Planarization of ECMP and CMP for MEMS Copper Patterns
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used as planarization process in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The CMP process is required to planarize the overburden film in an interconnect process by high relative velocity between head and platen, high pressure of head and chemical effects of an aqueous slurry. But, a variety of defects such as dishing, delamination and metal layer peering are caused by CMP factors such as high pressure, pad bending and strong chemical effect. The electrical energy of the electro-chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP) dissolves copper (Cu) solid into copper ions electrochemically in an aqueous electrolyte. The dissolved copper complex layer or passivation layer is removed by the mechanical abrasions of polishing pad and abrasive. Therefore the ECMP process realizes low pressure processing of soft metals to reduce defects comparing to traditional CMP process. But, if projected metal patterns were removed and not remained on whole wafer surface in final processing stage, Cu layer could not be removed by ECMP process. The two-step process consists of the ECMP and the conventional CMP used in micro patterned Cu wafers. First, the ECMP process removed several tens 'm of bulk copper on Cu patterned wafer within shorter process time than the Cu CMP. Next, residual Cu layer was completely removed by the Cu CMP under low pressure. Total time and process defects are extremely reduced by the two-step process.
Byungsei Jun, Hyungsun Kim, Chanwon Lee, Soo Wohn Lee
S. H. Jeong et al., "Two-Step Planarization of ECMP and CMP for MEMS Copper Patterns", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 569, pp. 117-120, 2008