Eco-Materials Processing and Design IX

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Authors: Sen Liang, Ji Qiang Gao, Jian Feng Yang, Min Luo
Abstract: The electrical and structural properties of the mixture of Co3O4 and In2O3 were studied. All the samples were added with 2% nanocrystalline SiO2 and sintered at 1000°C for 2 hours. The sintered bodies of the samples were of high density and the average particle size was ~2μm. The materials showed the NTC behavior in a wide temperature range (100-350°C). The resistivity of the materials at room temperature decreased with increase the content of the In2O3 from 0% to 10%. The thermistor constant (B) values and activation energy(E) were 7835, 6637, 5903K, and 0.675, 0.572, and 0.509 eV as the content of In2O3 were 0%, 5% and 10%, respectively.
Authors: Wei Zhang, De Ning Zou, Hong Hong Yao, Jun Yang
Abstract: Copper is a well-known alloying element which is used to improve the resistance to general corrosion of stainless steels. Our previous experiments show that the increase of copper content can acquire the excellent antibacterial properties and can also increase the tendency to cold formability of the ferritic stainless steels. However, the effect of alloying Cu on the resistance to localized corrosion has not been clarified sufficiently. In order to understand the effect of copper on pitting corrosion resistance of the ferritic antibacterial stainless steel, the electrochemical experiments were carried out and the anodic polarization curves were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution for two kinds of steels. The results reveal that the ε-Cu phase in ferrite matrix diminishes pitting corrosion resistance of the antibacterial stainless steel in the chlorides medium. It is connected with the poor passive behavior of the ε-Cu phase inclusions.
Authors: Jae Hee Jung, Jung Bum Choo, Sang Soo Kim
Abstract: In diesel engine, generally, the removal of carbon nanoparticles has been based on a filtration system or oxidation reactor with O2 at high temperatures of above 800 °C. Recently, NO2 has been found to be a more efficient oxidant than O2 at lower temperatures in the range of 200~500 °C. Small amounts of NO2 in the range of a few hundreds of ppm by volume can promote the continuous oxidation of carbon particulates. Thus far, experiments involving diesel PM (particulate matter) oxidation by NO2 are only practiced as regards the soot deposited on filters or plates. However, in aerosol state, depending on the surrounding temperature and the NO2 concentration, the carbon nanoparticle removal rate is significantly different. Therefore, the study of nano-sized carbon aerosol oxidation in various gas circumstances is required. In this study, the oxidation characteristics of nano-sized carbon aerosol particles in NO2 condition are investigated.
Authors: Supawan Kasuriya, Sirithan Jiemsirilers, Parjaree Thavorniti
Abstract: The clay-based ceramic was produced by adding with the bottom ash from domestic municipal solid waste incinerator plant in Thailand. The amount of the ash up to 60 wt% was added. The samples were dry pressed and sintered at the temperature range between 1000 and 1125°C. The presence of quartz (SiO2), anorthite sodian (Ca,Na)(Si,Al)4O8, albite (Na(Si3Al)O8) and mullite (Al6Si2O13) was observed in the sample with the addition of the bottom ash. The physical and mechanical properties were also presented. The sintering temperature and the ash addition revealed the effect on the properties of the product.
Authors: Dae Yong Shin, Kyung Nam Kim
Abstract: Municipal incinerator residue (MIR) was used as raw material to replace clay to manufacture bricks. Brick specimens were substituted from 0 to 50 wt% MIR by 10 wt% increment for clay. Clay-MIR brick specimens were fired at 800~1050°C for 2 h. Firing shrinkage, bulk density, water absorption rate and compressive strength were investigated. Leaching procedure tests were also conducted to characterize toxicity. Increasing MIR contents resulted in a decrease in water absorption rate, firing shrinkage and increase in compressive strength of bricks. It was found that when brick specimen with 50 wt% of MIR content was heat-treated at 1000°C for 2 h, a brick specimen could be generated, which was compressive strength of 1256 kg/cm2, water absorption ratio of 6.8% and firing shrinkage of 3.5%. This indicates that MIR is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks
Authors: Rumi Chand, Takanori Watari, Toshio Torikai, Mitsunori Yada, Katsutoshi Inoue
Abstract: Porous carbon having surface area of 792 m2g-1 was prepared from barley straw by carbonization at 800 oC at a heating rate of 5 oCmin-1 to test the chromium (VI) adsorption from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, contact time and equilibrium Cr (VI) concentration on the adsorption were studied in detail. The optimum pH for Cr (VI) removal was found to be 2. The adsorption of Cr (VI) was very rapid and equilibrium was reached within 1 h. It was interpreted in terms of adsorption-coupled reduction mechanism. Accompanied by the decrease of Cr (VI) ion, Cr (III) ion was slightly released in the solution. Maximum loading capacity of total chromium was found to be 2.35 molkg-1 at pH 2.
Authors: Xue Gang Luo, Feng Liu, Xiao Yan Lin, Jian Zhou
Abstract: A new Gelatin-glutaradehyde-Poly(vinyl alcohol) bioadsorbent was synthesized by immobilizing Poly(vinyl alcohol) onto gelatin followed by cross-linking. This technique gives the bioadsorbent of gelatin good chemical resistance and mechanical strength. SEM and FT-IR were conducted for characterization of the bioadsrobent. A comprehensive adsorption study of Copper(II) removal from synthetic aqueous solution by adsorption on this bioadsorbent was conducted regarding the effects of initial pH, time, and copper(II) initial concentration. The adsorption data were applied to Freundlich isotherm equation and its contents were calculated. The results obtained showed that the new absorbent has good performance for the removal of copper(II).
Authors: Jae Kyung Yoon, Eun Jung Shim, Jin Wook Ha, Hyun Ku Joo
Abstract: In this study, immobilized nanotubular TiO2 is used to reduce toxic Cr(VI) to non toxic Cr(III) in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. To overcome the limitation of powder TiO2, a novel technique of immobilization based on anodization was applied and investigated under various experimental conditions. Among the samples tested under same anodizing condition, the nanotubular TiO2 annealed at 450 oC and 550 oC showed higher reduction efficiencies of Cr(VI). In addition, the surface characterizations (zeta potential, XRD and SEM) of these samples proved that the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency was higher under acidic conditions and at a lower annealing temperature. Through this study, it was concluded that anodized TiO2 has the potential to be useful technology for environmental remediation as well as hydrogen production in water.
Authors: Dae Geun Kim, Jae Ho Lee
Abstract: The codeposition of fine WC and Co coated WC particles from nickel Watt’s bath has been investigated. Electroplating of Ni/WC and Ni/WC(Co) composites coating were carried out at different current density with variation of particle size. The effect of hydrodynamic conditions of the codeposition of Ni/WC bath has been investigated. The Guglielmi adsorption mechanism is applied to the electroplating of the fine WC and WC(Co) in Ni matrix. The adsorption rate of determination step is controlled by the transferal process of loose adsorption to strong adsorption. The embedded WC concentration can be increased both by increasing electrical current density and additional WC concentration in the bath.
Authors: Beom Goo Lee, Hyun Jong Lee, Dae Yong Shin, Yeon Ho Jeong, Cheng Wu Jin, Dong Ha Cho, Kang Yol Lee, Dong Eun Kim, Wie Soo Kang, Young Gyun Goh, Byung Ho Hwang
Abstract: Kenaf core was tested for its ability to sorb diesel oil from the pure diesel oil bath and the diesel oil containing water bath after extracting with diethyl ether to remove wax from fiber surface, grinding to disrupt lumen structure and presoaking in water. Oil sorption capacity was the highest as 8.0 g/g in diethyl ether extracted fiber in oil bath, and the lowest as 1.3 g/g in water soaked kenaf core in water bath. Diesel oil sorption capacity was much higher in oil bath than in water bath. In diethyl ether extraction the diesel oil sorption capacity was not changed much in kenaf core, compared to that of control. Also, even after grinding and passing through 20 mesh screen (0.86mm) the diesel oil sorption capacity was almost same. When kenaf core was presoaked in water the oil sorption capacity was decreased to about half of control as 1.3g/g in water bath. Grinding, extracting and water presoaking all contributed to the changes in oil sorption capacity. The results show that if in lignocelluloscic fiber like kenaf core the fiber structure is not disrupted during processing and the intact lumen structure can be kept, the oil sorption capacity may not be affected much by physical and chemical changes.

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