Variation of Residual Stresses in Drawn Copper Tubes
Seamless tubes are used for many applications, e.g. in heating, transport gases and fluids, evaporators as well as medical use and as intermediate products for hydroforming and various mechanical applications, where the final dimensions normally are given by some cold drawing steps. The first process step – piercing of the billet, for example by extrusion or 3-roll-milling - typically results in ovality and eccentricity in the tube causing non-symmetric material flow during the cold drawing process, i.e. inhomogeneous deformation. Because of this non-axisymmetric deformation and of deviations over tube length caused by moving tools, this process step generates residual stresses. To understand the interconnections between the geometrical changes in the tubes and the residual stresses, the residual strains in a copper tube had been measured by neutron diffraction.
A. R. Pyzalla, A. Borbély and H.-P. Degischer
A. Carradò et al., "Variation of Residual Stresses in Drawn Copper Tubes", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 571-572, pp. 21-26, 2008