Rapid Thermal Processing and beyond: Applications in Semiconductor Processing
Heat-treatment and thermal annealing are very common processing steps which have been employed during semiconductor manufacturing right from the beginning of integrated circuit technology. In order to minimize undesired diffusion, and other thermal budget-dependent effects, the trend has been to reduce the annealing time sharply by switching from standard furnace batch-processing (involving several hours or even days), to rapid thermal processing involving soaking times of just a few seconds. This transition from thermal equilibrium, to highly non-equilibrium, processing was very challenging and is still a field ripe for further development.
This special-topic book, “Rapid Thermal Processing and Beyond: - Applications in Semiconductor Processing” focuses on various aspects of Rapid Thermal and Millisecond Annealing and is arranged so as to follow the major processing steps involved in high-performance transistor fabrication, without claiming to be a complete catalogue of all of the Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) steps currently in use.
Starting with the silicon wafer-material itself and emphasizing various aspects of devices, from advanced gate dielectrics to source/drain engineering, the issue ends with a summary of fully silicided gates. Moreover, thermal processing development over the past 30 years is highlighted for full-wafer millisecond annealing, laser annealing and high-volume production RTP systems. The latest insights into surface cleaning for nano-technology as well as Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry are also discussed. Experts from most of the leading semiconductor and equipment companies and research institutes contributed to this review of the latest rapid thermal processing innovations. This makes it truly a state-of-the-art compendium.
Review from Ringgold Inc., ProtoView: This special issue of the periodical Materials Science Forum contains 30 contributions from semiconductor technologists from nine different countries. Material is presented in sections on the various aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP) and millisecond annealing, and is arranged to follow the major process flow steps in high performance transistor fabrication. Starting with the silicon wafer material itself, the book covers various aspects of the device from advanced gate dielectrics through source/drain engineering, and ends with a summary on fully silicided gates. Chapters are in sections on a review of the field, wafer parameter tuning and defects, surface preparation and gate dielectrics, USJ formation and metrology, advanced silicides formation, pattern effects, temperature measurement, and flash annealing for ULSI and beyond Si. B&w images are included.