Materials Science, Testing and Informatics IV

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Authors: Viktor Bánhidi, László A. Gömze
Abstract: The use of technologically byproduct agricultural wastes in various segments of the brick and tile industry is increasing continuously. The additives, mixed into the raw clay ignite during the firing process, adding extra thermal energy from inside the mixture decreasing the energy requirements of the manufacturing process. Added to this, through the combustion of the bio-wastes the porosity increases enhancing the thermal insulation properties of the final product. We have investigated some common, agricultural wastes to determine their effect on the thermal properties of bricks. In our experiments industry relevant amounts of additives (sawdust, rice-peel, seed-shell) were added to the basic clay composition. We have prepared mixtures with additive concentrations of 0, 4, 7 percentage by weight. The preparations of the samples were (milling, drying and firing) following industrial standard procedures. Precise thermal conductivity data were gathered from all samples using a RAPID-K type static thermal conductivity measuring instrument. Our measurements show that by increasing the amount of the organic byproducts in the clay mixture it is possible to significantly decrease their thermal conductivity, leading to an improved insulation capability of commercial brick products. On the other hand, there was only a minor reduction in the mechanical strength found during previous works. The investigated agricultural byproducts were also ranked based on their effect on the product's thermal properties. It was found that the largest decrease to the thermal conductivity was caused by the sunflower seed-shell additive. Mixing 7 % wt. seed shell to the clay, we can decrease the thermal conductivity of the fired product from 0,27 W/m·K to 0,17 W/m·K (36%). We have found that under the same conditions the sawdust caused the least improvement, only a decrease of 0,27 W/m·K to 0,23 W/m·K (16%) was measured.
Authors: Tamás Deák, Tibor Czigány
Abstract: Basalt fiber reinforced polyamide composites were investigated to determine their static and dynamic mechanical properties. The composites were compounded in an extruder and were injection molded. A glass fiber reinforced composite also was investigated. Two different basalt fibers were used with silane sizing and one of them was used also without sizing. The results show that composites with silane sized basalt fibers have properties similar to glass fiber reinforced composites, while unsized basalt fibers eventuate smaller strength and higher brittleness.
Authors: János Dobránszky
Abstract: Investigations of microstructural differences of tempered eutectoid steel strips are presented. The constituent phases – fine mixture of ferrite and cementite and a small amount of retained austenite – considerably affect the mechanical properties, especially the resistance to high cycle fatigue. The amount of retained austenite was determined by XRD and EBSD analysis. Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements were performed for 270 different batches of C75S type eutectoid steel strips. TEP measurement shows characteristically the fine microstructural differences. The TEP of the investigated samples varied between 5650 and 7030 nV/°C. The amount of retained austenite can be significantly higher at the surface (20 %) than at the internal part (0-5 %). The sensitivity of XRD analysis was reduced because of the presence of coarse cementite particles. Using Cu anode, the measurements were more successful than in case of using Co anode. The EBSD analysis showed that also samples immeasurable with XRD contain retained austenite, but its detectability with XRD analysis declines with the coarsening of cementite.
Authors: Z. Gaál, Péter János Szabó, János Ginsztler
Abstract: AISI 304 type austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to different thermomechanical treatments in order to investigate the effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on the grain boundary structure of the material. Electron back scatter diffraction measurements have been carried out in order to obtain information about the boundaries of the treated specimen. The measurements showed that achieving the same deformation with the same number of deformation cycles and same heat treatment temperature, the application of shorter heat treatment holding time was advantageous in aspect of grain boundary structure comparing to the thermo-mechanical treatments with longer holding time. The frequency of the special Σ3n type CSL-boundaries excluding coherent twin boundaries was significantly decreased by increasing the heat treatment holding time of the samples from the very short heat treatment periods. Extending the holding time further, the frequency of the special Σ3n type CSL-boundaries excluding coherent twin boundaries increased and reached the results applying the shorter heat treatment periods.
Authors: Ibolya Kardos, Balázs Verő, Zsolt Csepeli, Mihály Réger
Abstract: In spite of speedy development of technical tools for examination, the importance of macro structural investigation has not decreased; on the contrary, these methods are in the state of their revival. One of evident reasons for it is the fact, that the results of macro structural examinations and the conclusions drawn from them are in the closest relation with the parameters of technology, reflect their changes, and the deviations from the specified values. It is expedient from time to time to check the methods proved earlier suitable for macro structural investigation, possibly to develop and implement new methods. We have to take in account that the methods now widely applied were developed when the technology, composition, type and quantity of pollutants were still basically different from those of the present. We mention as an example that in the fundamental work of George F. Vander Voort published in 1984 the examinations of macrostructure of continuously cast semi products occupied hardly one to two pages, while nowadays they produce about 90% of the annual 1.1 billion tonne steel quantity in continuous casting plants, thus the decisive proportion of continuously cast semi products examination can hardly be questioned. Taking in consideration the above points of view, in the frame of a consortium work we examined the macrostructure of samples taken from bloom slabs cast on vertical continuous casting machine from nine consciously chosen charges, with methods known from the literature or personal information.
Authors: Gábor Lengyel, Béla Palotás
Abstract: The mechanical properties of temper-grade steels can be modified in a wide range by heat treatment. The principle of heat treatment lies in the good hardenability, so when such steels are welded it is very likely that the heat affected zone is hardened. Considering the fact that in the case of design simplifications it may be needed to weld temper-grade steels, as well therefore it is of crucial importance to eliminate cold cracking. There are many methods available to determine preheat temperature. The applicability of methods for determination of preheat temperature was checked by experimental welding for both two and three dimensional heat conduction. According to our experience the different methods cannot be applied in general namely they are valid only under certain conditions.
Authors: A. Pilbáth, É. Pfeifer, F.H. Kármán, Ilona Felhősi, J. Mink, Erika Kálmán
Abstract: The objective of our studies was to investigate the layer formation of 1, 5-diphosphonopentane (DPP) on zinc surface from aqueous solution. For surface treatment, water based solutions of 1, 5-diphosphono-pentane was applied with different treatment times. Evidence of the adsorption of the diphosphonic acid on the zinc surface was obtained using the Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS).
Authors: Mihály Réger, Heli Kytönen, Balázs Verő, Árpád Szélig
Abstract: Industrial data set with 400 CC steel slabs were analysed by a statistical method for revealing the real connections between the technological parameters, heat transfer model results and the precisely determined centerline segregation index. Because of the poor correlations a new model was developed in which the shrinkage and deformations of the shells of the slabs can also be taken into account. It has been proved that the stopping of liquid movement below about 30 % liquid ratio plays an important role in the centerline segregation formation. The conclusions of the calculations are in good accordance with the results of the metallographical analysis.

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