Oxidation of Some Titanium Alloys in Air at Elevated Temperatures
This paper presents comparative studies on the performance of two titanium alloys (Ti- 6Al-1Mn, Ti-45.9Al-8Nb) in an oxidizing atmosphere at 700 oC and 800 oC. Testing procedure comprised thermogravimetric measurements at a constant temperature and in thermal cycling conditions (1-h and 20-h cycles at constant temperature followed by rapid cooling). The overall duration of the cyclic oxidation tests was up to 1000 hours. The oxidized specimens were analyzed in terms of chemical composition, phase composition, and morphology (SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, XRD). The extent and forms of alloy degradation were evaluated on the basis of microscopic observation of specimen fractures and cross-sections. Selected specimens were examined by means of XPS, SIMS and GDS. Oxidation mechanism of Ti-46Al-8Nb was assessed a two-stage oxidation method using oxygen-18 and oxygen-16. Apparently, the oxidation of this alloy proceeded in several stages. According to XPS, already after quite short reaction time, the specimens were covered with a very thin oxide film, mainly composed of aluminum oxide (corundum). A thicker layer of titanium dioxide (rutile) developed underneath. These two layers were typical of the oxidation products formed on this alloy, even when tested in thermal cycling conditions. In general, the scale had a complex multilayer structure but it was thin and adherent. Under the continuous layer of titania, there was a fine-grained zone composed of mixed oxides. The alloy/scale interface was marked with niobium-rich precipitates embedded in a titanium-rich matrix. There were some indications of secondary processes occurring under the initial continuous oxide layers (e.g. characteristic layout of pores or voids). Thickness of inner scale layers clearly increased according to parabolic kinetics, while that of the outer compact layer (mainly TiO2) changed only slightly. The distribution of oxygen isotopes across the scale/alloy interface indicated two-way diffusion of the reacting species – oxygen inward and metals outward diffusion. Silicon deposited on Ti-6Al-1Mn alloy positively affected scale adhesion and remarkably reduced alloy degradation rate.
Pierre Steinmetz, Ian G. Wright, Alain Galerie, Daniel Monceau and Stéphane Mathieu
E. Godlewska et al., "Oxidation of Some Titanium Alloys in Air at Elevated Temperatures", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 595-598, pp. 967-974, 2008