Backstress, the Bauschinger Effect and Cyclic Deformation
Backstresses or long range internal stresses (LRIS) in the past have been suggested by many to exist in plastically deformed crystalline materials. Elevated stresses can be present in regions of elevated dislocation density or dislocation heterogeneities in the deformed microstructures. The heterogeneities include edge dislocation dipole bundles (veins) and the edge dipole walls of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in cyclically deformed materials and cell and subgrain walls in monotonically deformed materials. The existence of long range internal stress is especially important for the understanding of cyclic deformation and also monotonic deformation. X-ray microbeam diffraction experiments performed by the authors using synchrotron x-ray microbeams determined the elastic strains within the cell interiors. The studies were performed using, oriented, monotonically deformed Cu single crystals. The results demonstrate that small long-range internal stresses are present in cell interiors. These LRIS vary substantially from cell to cell as 0 % to 50 % of the applied stress. The results are related to the Bauschinger effect, often explained in terms of LRIS.
Marcello Cabibbo and Stefano Spigarelli
M. E. Kassner et al., "Backstress, the Bauschinger Effect and Cyclic Deformation", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 604-605, pp. 39-51, 2009