The nano-Al2O3 reinforced copper matrix composite was prepared by powder metallurgy technique and the fretting test against 440C stainless steel was performed at room temperature by using the ball-on–flat configuration with 300μm amplitude at various normal loads in the range of 0.1N to 1N. The influences of load and proportion of Al2O3 on the friction coefficient and volume wear -loss were investigated. Results showed that the volume wear-loss decreased firstly and then increased as the proportion of Al2O3 increased from 0.5% to 4%, and the minimum proportion was about 2%, in which the electrical conductivity can reach up to 81% according to International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). The friction coefficient of the copper will slightly increases as the load increased. However, in the case of composites, it increased firstly then decreased. The volume wear-loss of the composite is always lower than that of copper, giving the highest relative wear-ability of 1.55, which indicated a higher wear resistance. The wear mechanism of copper is adhesive wear, whereas it becomes oxidation wear in composites.