Abstract: Migration of atoms is presented to be utilized for fabrication of metallic micro/nanomaterials by controlling the phenomenon. Two kinds of migration phenomena are treated; one is electromigration and the other is stress migration. In addition to the formation of micro/nanomaterials, some achievements in enhancing their functions are demonstrated. One is a technique to fabricate nanocoils from the formed Cu nanowires. The others are techniques to weld or cut the micro/nanowires by using Joule heating. Finally, regarding evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of the micro/nanomaterials, the concentrated-mass cantilever technique in atomic force acoustic microscopy and the four-point atomic force microscope technique are shown to be powerful tools, respectively.
Abstract: A phenomenological mechanism of transformation plasticity is discussed, in the first part of the paper, why the transformation plastic deformation takes place under a stress level even lower than the characteristic yield stress of the material: This is principally based on the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of mother and new phases. Some calculated data of induced stress and strain depending on applied stress are represented. Bearing in mind that it is also a kind of plastic strain, a unified plastic flow theory is derived by introducing the effect of progressing new phase into the yield function of stress, temperature and plasticity related parameters. Thus obtained strain rate reveals to include the transformation plastic part in addition to thermo-mechanical plastic components. Application of the theory is carried out to simulate some complicated cases of varying stress and temperature, and the results are compared with experimental data.
Abstract: Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) proved the existence of quasi-compounds on solid surfaces. A typical example is (-Ag-O-) or (-Cu-O-) chains grown on Ag(110) or Cu(110) surface by exposing to O2. The (-Ag-O-) chains on a Ag(110) reacts with Cu atoms to form a new quasi-compound of (-Cu-O-) chains on the Ag(110) surface. The (-Cu-O-) on the Ag(110) readily decomposes at ca. 570ºK to form Cu6 dots, and a reversible reaction of (Cu2)3 + O2. ↔ (-Cu-O-) takes place by exposing to O2. Deposited Zn, Sn and Ag atoms on a Si(111)-7x7 surface stabilize by forming Zn3, Sn2 and Sn, and Ag in a half unit cell. Layer-by-layer growth of Zn3 clusters occurs in a half unit cell, which results in the growth of a semi-conductive honeycomb layer of Zn3 clusters on the Si(111)-7x7 surface. By prohibiting hopping migration of Ag atoms on the Si(111)-7x7 surface by the adsorption of C2H5OH, nano-size Ag dots grow layer-by-layer in a limited mold spacing. The band gap of Ag-dots becomes narrower and narrower and becomes metallic at higher than 6 layers.
Abstract: This paper presents an advanced numerical methodology which aims to improve virtually any metal forming processes. It is based on elastoplastic constitutive equations accounting for non-linear mixed isotropic and kinematic hardening “strongly” coupled with isotropic ductile damage. During simulation of metal forming processes, where large plastic deformations with ductile damage occur, severe mesh distorsion takes place after a finite number of incremental steps. Hence an automatic mesh generation with remeshing capabilities is essential to carry out the finite element analysis. Besides, when damage is taken into account a kill element procedure is needed to eliminate the fully damaged elements in order to simulate the growth of macroscopic cracks. The necessary steps to remesh a damaged structure in finite element simulation of forming processes including damage occurrence (initiation and growth) are given. An important part of this procedure is constituted by geometrical and physical error estimates. The meshing and remeshing procedures are automatic and are implemented in a computational finite element analysis package (ABAQUS/Explicit solver using the Vumat user subroutine). Some numerical results are presented to show the capability of the proposed procedure to predict the damage initiation and growth during the metal forming processes.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to extend the equations of linear poroelasticity to the case of materials with nanopores. We consider a model of microstructure which corresponds to an assemblage of hollow spheres saturated by a fluid. The solid phase is linearly elastic and isotropic; pores are assumed to be of nanometric size. To account for the pore surface stresses, the Young-Laplace model is used. The nanopore size effects on the effective bulk modulus, Biot’ modulus and coefficient are shown. When pores are sufficiently large, the classical relations of linear poroelasticity are retrieved.
Abstract: Experiments of fracture toughness with non-standard SENB specimens of five different thicknesses were performed to investigate the size effect on the ductile and brittle fracture for different temperatures. From the experimental results it is found that size effects both brittle and ductile fracture with the same trend but for different mechanical reasons. The ductile fracture toughness increases firstly with increased plastic deformation zone size and plastic fracture strain under general yielding conditions, and then drops down due to the plastic deformation zone size not changing much which is less than the residual ligament width and the increase of the proportion of the high stress triaxiality zone to the whole specimen. The fracture toughness of the lower shelf increases with increasing thickness of the plastic deformation zone size under small scale yielding conditions, and then drops down due to the increase of the high out-of-plane constraint.
Abstract: Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta (at.%) bulk alloys with dense and ultrafine grains were fabricated by Double Mechanical Milling (mechanical milling + heat treatment + mechanical milling) and spark plasma sintering method. The phase composition and microstructure of the milled powder and bulk alloy sintered by SPS at different temperature (900oC, 1000oC and 1100oC), and the relationship between microstructure and properties of bulk alloys were investigated. The results demonstrate that high-quality composite powders (low contaminant, size uniform distribution and elements homogeneous dispersion) can be obtained by double mechanical milling. The composite powders prepared by primary mechanical milling were uniform and partially solid solution. Ti3Al、Ti、Al3Ti and TiAl phases were found after heat treatment while Al phase disappeared. The fined grain size and particle size were achieved by subsequent mechanical milling. The whole mechanical milling leads to alloying and the refined grain and particle, which also cause lattice distortion and powders system energy increased. SPS results showed that the densified and ultrafine grained Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta alloy is mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti3Al phase and a small quantity of TiB2 phase. With the increasing of sintering temperature, grain size of TiAl based alloy increase. The mechanical properties depend on microstructure and grain size. The relationship between compression properties, bending properties and microstructure was discussed.
Abstract: Effects of heat treatment on the microstructure of as-cast and as-forged Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy are discussed. The as-cast Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy exhibits a microstructure consisting of fine equiaxed grains which average size is almost 100μm. Phase transformation of as-cast Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy greatly depends upon cooling rate. During furnace cooling, the alloy transform to fully lamellar microstructure. During air cooling, massive transformation predominates. During oil cooling, extremely fine fully lamellar microstructure is formed. During water cooling, ordering α2 phases are primary. Thermo-mechanical treatments, through combined action of hot canned forging and heat treatment, were performed on a Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy to investigate their effect on the microstructure of the alloy. The as-forged Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy is comprised of a large number of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) γ grains, curved and broken lamellae, and a small amount of remnant lamellae. And three different microstructures, duplex (DP), nearly lamellar (NL) and fine fully lamellar (FFL), have been obtained through heat treatment at different temperatures (1320-1370°C), respectively.