Interest in using titanium (Ti) alloys as load-bearing implant materials has increased due to their high strength to weight ratio, lower elastic modulus, and superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion resistance compared to conventional metals such as stainless steel and Co-Cr alloys. In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of five binary titanium alloys, Ti15Ta, Ti15Nb, Ti15Zr, Ti15Sn and Ti15Mo, was assessed using human osteosarcoma cell line, SaOS-2 cells. The Cell proliferation and viability were determined, and cell adhesion and morphology on the surfaces of the binary Ti alloys after cell culture were observed by SEM. Results indicated that the Ti binary alloys of Ti15Ta, Ti15Nb and Ti15Zr exhibited the same level of excellent biocompatibility; Ti15Sn alloy exhibited a moderate biocompatibility while Ti15Mo alloy exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity. The SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells had flattened and spread across the surfaces of the Ti15Ta, Ti15Nb, Ti15Zr and Ti15Sn groups; however, the cell shapes on the Ti15Mo alloy was shrinking and unhealthy. These results indicated that the Mo contents should be limited to a certain level in the design and development of new Ti alloys for implant material applications.