Abstract: Ferromagnetic Heusler alloys like Ni-Mn-Z (Z = Al, Ga, In, Sn, Sb), which undergo a martensitic phase transformation, are on the edge of being used in technological applications involving actuator and magnetocaloric devices. The other class of ferromagnetic full Heusler alloys like Co-Mn-Z (Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, Sn) not undergoing a structural phase transition, are half-metals (in contrast to the Ni-based systems) with high spin polarization at the Fermi level and are of potential importance for future spintronics devices. On the basis of recent ab initio calculations, we highlight the main differences between the two classes of Heusler based materials.
Abstract: The Landau theory has been developed for the description of martensite aging. The characteristic features of the theory are: i) the multicomponent non-scalar character of the order parameter describing the slow reconfiguration of lattice defects after martensitic transformation (MT); ii) the complete agreement with Symmetry-Conforming Short-Range-Order principle formulated by X. Ren and K. Otsuka; iii) the applicability to the different MT-s and various defects related to aging phenomena. The physical values interpreted as the components of internal stress, which stabilizes certain variant of martensitic phase, have been composed of the components of slow non-scalar order parameter. An applicability of the developed theory to the description of influence of aging on the MT temperature and yield stress was demonstrated.
Abstract: The magnetic properties of the parent and martensite phases of the Ni2Mn1+xSn1-x and Ni2Mn1+xIn1-x ternary alloys and the magnetic field-induced shape memory effect obtained in NiCoMnIn alloys are reviewed, and our recent work on powder metallurgy performed for NiCoMnSn alloys is also introduced. The concentration dependence of the total magnetic moment for the parent phase in the NiMnSn alloys is very different from that in the NiMnIn alloys, and the magnetic properties of the martensite phase with low magnetization in both NiMnSn and NiMnIn alloys has been confirmed by Mössbauer examination as being paramagnetic, but not antiferromagnetic. The ductility of NiCoMnSn alloys is drastically improved by powder metallurgy using the spark plasma sintering technique, and a certain degree of metamagnetic shape memory effect has been confirmed.
Abstract: Magnetic and structural properties in multifunctional FSMA (Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys) belonging to Heusler family are frequently related to the occurrence of structural modulation in martensitic phases. The highest MFIS (Magnetic Field Induced Strain) effect has been observed in Ni-Mn-Ga alloys showing martensitic modulated structures. Depending on the composition, pressure and temperature conditions, this periodic structural distortion, consisting of shuffling of atomic layers along specific crystallographic directions, accompanies the martensitic transformation.
Over the years, different modulated martensitic structures have been observed and classified depending upon the periodicity of corresponding superstructure (nM with n=3, 5, 6, 7, 12 etc). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that in most cases such structural modulation is incommensurate and the crystal structure can be solved by applying superspace approach. The crystallographic representation of different modulated structures, obtained by structure refinement on powder diffraction data, suggests a unified description where every different “nM” periodicity can be straightforwardly represented. It will be presented an overview illustrating structural features of several displacive modulated martensitic lattices. For a specific Ni-Mn-Ga composition, the evolution of structural modulation upon temperature change will be illustrated.
Abstract: The martensitic transition and the ferro- to paramagnetic transition have been studied in a series of Ga excess Ni-Mn-Ga specimens [Ni2-xMnGa1+x (0.4≤ x≤ 0.9)] by differential scanning calorimetry and magnetization measurements. The martensitic transition exhibits a hysteresis whose width is similar to Ni2MnGa, indicating that the transition is thermoelastic. The latent heat of transformation is comparable with other Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. A substantial increase in the martensitic transition temperature is observed due to Ga doping. Interestingly, the x-ray diffraction pattern of all the compositions studied show a modulated martensitic structure in the martensitic phase.
Abstract: We have investigated stress and temperature dependences of the structure of the X-phase in Ni2MnGa to understand structural relation between the X-phase and other phases. Position and intensity of satellites of the X-phase are different from those of the intermediate (I-) phase under compressive stress, but they approach those of the I-phase with decreasing stress. That is, the structure change associated with the I → X transformation is discontinuous under a compressive stress, while it is continuous under zero stress. In addition, the transformation from the X-phase to the L21-type parent phase is continuous regardless of applied stress. These results strongly suggest the existence of multi-critical point in Ni2MnGa. On the other hand, the transformation from the X-phase to the martensite phase is discontinuous regardless of applied stress.