Optimal Precipitation Hardening Conditions in Lead Base Anodes for Copper Electrowinning
The suitable yield stress of Pb-0.07%Ca-1.3%Sn anodes of 6 mm thickness for copper electrowinning is achieved by means of deformation and precipitation hardening processes, being its useful life dependant of this yield stress. In such sense the objective of the present work is to optimize the precipitation hardening, finding for this purpose the best cooling conditions of the anodes in the molds and of the hot rolling temperature. The results show that increasing cooling rate of ingots from natural cooling the precipitation hardening is enhanced, with increases of 10% and 12.5 % on the yield stress and working life of the anodes respectively, and that a minimum of 45 days of ageing is necessary to reach stable conditions for the precipitation hardening, with precipitates formation as CaSn3. The hot roll temperature as not significant effect on the precipitation hardening of the anodes.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
C. Camurri et al., "Optimal Precipitation Hardening Conditions in Lead Base Anodes for Copper Electrowinning", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 638-642, pp. 1091-1097, 2010