Production of Glucose by Starch and Cellulose Acid Hydrolysis and its Use as a Fuel in Low-Temperature Direct-Mode Fuel Cells
The use of glucose, which is produced from the acid hydrolysis of starch and cellulose, is studied as a fuel in a low-temperature direct-mode fuel cell (LTDMFC) with an alkaline electrolyte. Glucose is regarded as being as good a fuel as bioethanol, because both the fuels give 2 electrons per molecule in the fuel cell without carbonisation problems. However, glucose can be produced with fewer processing stages from starch and cellulose than can bioethanol. In the LTDMFC the fuel and the electrolyte are mixed with each other and the fuel cell is equipped only with metal catalysts. Cellulose as a fuel is of great importance because the fuel for the energy production is not taken from food production. A description of an acid hydrolysis method for starch and cellulose is presented. Values for glucose concentrations in each hydrolysate are analysed by means of a chromatographic method. Each glucose hydrolysate was made alkaline by adding of potassium hydroxide before feed in the fuel cell. Polarisation curves were measured, and they were found to produce lower current density values when compared to earlier tests with pure glucose. The Coulombic efficiency of pure glucose electrochemical oxidation in LTDMFC, which was calculated from a ratio of detected current capacity (As) to the maximum current capacity with the release of two electrons per molecule, was also found to be very low. Concerning the hydrolysates, the glucose concentrations were found to have values that were too low when compared to the earlier tests with pure glucose in a concentration of 1 M. The further development demands for the system under consideration are indicated. The concentration of glucose in the hydrolysate is essential to achieve high enough current density values in the LTDMFC.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
J. P. Spets et al., "Production of Glucose by Starch and Cellulose Acid Hydrolysis and its Use as a Fuel in Low-Temperature Direct-Mode Fuel Cells", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 638-642, pp. 1164-1169, 2010