Friction stir spot welding (FSSW), developed based on principle of friction stir welding, has been paid attention as a new solid-state spot welding process. Since FSSW can produce high-quality weld in Al alloys more easily than resistance spot welding, this process has been already used for construction of Al components in the automotive industries. Despite the large industrial interests in FSSW, fundamental knowledge on welding phenomena of this process has not been fully understood. In this study, FSSW phenomena, such as the consolidation mechanism, the microstructural evolution and the material flow, were examined in Al alloy 6061. This study clarified that the elliptical zone found in the vicinity of the pin hole on the cross section was characterized by the initially lapped surface of two sheets. Moreover, the following material flow was proposed; capture of the upper material with the threads on the pin surface, spiral flow along the tool rotation, and then release at the tip of the pin.