Physical Simulation at Hot Deformation
Today the numerical simulation of hot deformation processes is very advanced. But it requires mathematical models for metalphysical processes as for microstructure development, which take place during the deformation. Until now such models were developed for many steel grades and non-ferrous materials. For new steels as multi-phase steels laboratory investigations are required, in order to determine the optimal processing technologies of these materials. This applies also to the modelling. So far it is impossible, to calculate sole by mathematical solutions the manifold parameters of metalphysical processes and microstructure, for this reason laboratory trials and simulations are needed implicitly. Even for well known materials such procedures can be essential and useful. Using the multi-functional simulation system Gleeble HDS-V40 it is shown, which possibilities a physical simulation offers today. Starting with the annealing conditions, followed by microstructure development up to cooling, selected examples reflect the results of property development during hot deformation processes. The differences between conventional deformation after re-heating and deformation after direct-charging will be presented. The last-mentioned concept offers in its combination of near-netshape casting and direct charging special benefits, especially saving of energy.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
R. Kawalla et al., "Physical Simulation at Hot Deformation", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 638-642, pp. 2591-2597, 2010