The paper deals with the inverse problems appearing in the thermal theory of foundry processes. In particular, the problems connected with identification of casting and mould thermophysical parameters can be considered. To estimate the parameters determining heat transfer processes in the system casting-mould, the additional information concerning the changes of temperature at the points selected from the domain considered is necessary. The localization of sensors should assure the best conditions of identification process. Generally speaking, the sensor should be located at the point for which the sensitivity of temperature field with respect to parameter estimated achieves maximum. In the case of simultaneous identification of several parameters, the proper choice of sensors localization is more complicated. The main goal of the paper is to discuss a theoretical base connected with the problem formulated, to present the possibilities of numerical methods application, to solve the problem, and finally to show the examples of inverse problems solutions (in particular, the latent heat of binary alloy will be estimated).