Gas-Discharge Plasma-Assisted Functionalization of Titanium Implant Surfaces
A crucial factor for in-growth of metallic implants in the bone stock is the rapid cellular acceptance whilst prevention of bacterial adhesion on the surface. Such contradictorily adhesion events could be triggered by surface properties. There already exists fundamental knowledge about the influence of physicochemical surface properties like roughness, titanium dioxide modifications, cleanness, and (mainly ceramic) coatings on cell and microbial behavior in vitro and in vivo. The titanium surface can be equipped with antimicrobial properties by plasma-based copper implantation, which allows the release and generation of small concentrations of copper ions during contact with water-based biological liquids. Additionally, the titanium surface was equipped with amino groups by the deposition of an ultrathin plasma polymer. This coating on the one hand does not significantly reduce the generation of copper ions, and on the other hand improves the adhesion and spreading of osteoblast cells. The process development was accompanied by physicochemical surface analyses like XPS, FTIR, contact angle, SEM, and AFM. Very thin modified layers were created, which are resistant to hydrolysis and delamination. These titanium surface functionalizations were found to have either an antimicrobial activity or cell-adhesive properties. Intramuscular implantation of titanium samples coated with the cell-adhesive plasma polymer in rats revealed a reduced inflammation reaction compared to uncoated titanium.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
K. Schröder et al., "Gas-Discharge Plasma-Assisted Functionalization of Titanium Implant Surfaces", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 638-642, pp. 700-705, 2010