Ion Leaching from Implantable Medical Devices
Implantable medical devices must be able to withstand the corrosive environment of the human body for 10 or more years without adverse consequences. Most reported research and development has been on developing materials and devices that are biocompatible and resistant to corrosion-fatigue, pitting, and crevice corrosion. However, little has been directly reported regarding implantable materials with respect to the rate at which they generate soluble ions in-vivo. Most of the biocompatibility studies have been done by examining animal implants and cell cultures rather than examining the rate at which these materials leach ions into the body. This paper will discuss what is currently known about the rate at which common implant materials (such as stainless steels, cobalt-chromium alloys, and nitinol) elute ions under in vitro conditions, what the limitations are of such data, and how this data can be used in medical device development.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
L. E. Eiselstein and R. D. Caligiuri, "Ion Leaching from Implantable Medical Devices", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 638-642, pp. 754-759, 2010