The thermal barrier coatings (TBC) enable to lower temperature (at approx. 170°C) of operating elements in a hot section of gas turbine to a range, which enables to operate for a long time in conditions of high temperature influence and prolongs operation of them even three or four times. Usually, the TBC coverings are constructed of four layers: • superalloys on a base of nickel; • outer ceramic zone, from which low thermal conduction is required. It is, in most cases, ZrO2 oxide stabilized with Y2O3 (YSZ – yttria stabilized zirconia), material of one of lowest values of thermal conductivity in high temperature of a rank 2.3 Wm-1K-1 in 1000°C for 100% density and thermal expansion of a rank 11×10-6°C-1, what enables to reduce thermal stresses. Usually, thickness of an outer ceramic layer is within a range 250-375μm; • bond coat of a type Ni(Co)CrAlY or diffusion layer of a type (Ni,Pt)Al; • layer of barrier oxides, accrueting as a result of temperature growth TGO (thermally grown oxide). In the present study characterization of conventional micro-sized YSZ powders stabilized by 8% of yttria and in comparison nano-sized YSZ will be presented. The tests performed showed that the monoclinic phase content in the nanocrystalline powder is approx. 8.8%, and approx. 7.5% in the conventional powder. The chemical composition analysis and test of powder microstructure were also performed. Carbon, sulphur and gas nitrogen contents were determined and the results received were similar. The surface morphology and powder microstructure on the cross-sections were also characterized. The standard powder with spherical shape and relatively smooth surface is predominant. The internal structure is characterized by the presence of tiny sintered particles and low porosity. The nanocrystalline powder tests showed the presence of particles in the form of tiny polyhedrons with bimodal size distribution of particles (approx. 1μm and 10μm).