Epitaxial Graphene Elaborated on 3C-SiC(111)/Si Epilayers
This article explores the formation of graphene layers on 3C-SiC(111) epilayers grown on silicon substrates using thermal annealing under Ultra High Vaccum (UHV) environment. The formation of graphene is demonstrated by use of near field microscopy (STM and AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The evolution of the surface stoichiometry of the 3C-SiC(111) pseudo substrates during the graphitization process is similar to that of the commonly used Si terminated -SiC bulk substrates, starting from a Si rich to the C rich surface characterized by a diffraction pattern. Graphitization process leads to a strong modification of the surface at a microscopic scale which is compared to that reported in case of 6H-SiC substrates. XPS spectra reveal the presence of typical C-C bonds related to a graphitic arrangement. Its high level of ordering is attested by the observation both of (66)SiC and (11)graphene surface reconstructions by STM. These results demonstrate the formation of graphene on 3C-SiC(111)/Si pseudo substrates. They open perspectives for developing novel C/SiC/Si heterostructures and put light on the ability of 3C-SiC/Si templates to become a low cost alternative of onerous -SiC substrates.
Anton J. Bauer, Peter Friedrichs, Michael Krieger, Gerhard Pensl, Roland Rupp and Thomas Seyller
A. Ouerghi et al., "Epitaxial Graphene Elaborated on 3C-SiC(111)/Si Epilayers", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 645-648, pp. 585-588, 2010