Permeability in the Mushy Zone
When modeled at macroscopic length scales, the complex dendritic network in the solid-plus-liquid region of a solidifying alloy (the “mushy zone”) has been modeled as a continuum based on the theory of porous media. The most important property of a porous medium is its permeability, which relates the macroscopic pressure gradient to the throughput of ﬂuid ﬂow. Knowledge of the permeability of the mushy zone as a function of the local volume-fraction of liquid and other morphological parameters is thus essential to successfully modeling the ﬂow of interdendritic liquid during alloy solidiﬁcation. In current continuum models, the permeability of the mushy zone is given as a deterministic function of (1) the local volume fraction of liquid and (2) a characteristic length scale such as the primary dendrite arm spacing or the reciprocal of the speciﬁc surface area of the solid-liquid interface. Here we ﬁrst provide a broad overview of the experimental data, mesoscale numerical ﬂow simulations, and resulting correlations for the deterministic permeability of both equiaxed and columnar mushy zones. A extended view of permeability in mushy zones which includes the stochastic nature of permeability is discussed. This viewpoint is the result of performing extensive numerical simulations of creeping ﬂow through random microstructures. The permeabilities obtained from these simulations are random functions with spatial autocorrelation structures, and variations in the local permeability are shown to have dramatic eﬀects on the ﬂow patterns observed in such microstructures. Speciﬁcally, it is found that “lightning-like” patterns emerge in the ﬂuid velocity and that the ﬂows in such geometries are strongly sensitive to small variations in the solid structure. We conclude with a comparison of deterministic and stochastic permeabilities which suggests the importance of incorporating stochastic descriptions of the permeability of the mushy zone in solidiﬁcation modeling.
A. Roósz, V. Mertinger, P. Barkóczy and Cs. Hoó
R.G. Erdmann et al., "Permeability in the Mushy Zone", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 649, pp. 399-408, 2010