The purpose of this research paper is focused on the X40CrMoV5-1 hot work tool steel surface layers improvement properties using high power diode laser. In the effect of laser alloying with powders of carbides occurs size reduction of microstructure, as well as dispersion hardening through fused in but partially dissolved carbides and consolidation through enrichment of surface layer in alloying additions coming from dissolving carbides. Introduced particles of carbides and in part remain undissolved, creating conglomerates being a result of fusion of undissolved powder grains into molten metal base. In effect of convection movements of material in the liquid state, conglomerates of carbides arrange themselves in the characteristic of swirl. Laser alloying of surface layer of investigated steel without introducing alloying additions into liquid molten metal pool, in the whole range of used laser power, causes size reduction of dendritic microstructure with the direction of crystallization consistent with the direction of heat carrying away from the zone of impact of laser beam. Remelting of the steel without introducing into liquid molten pool the alloying additions in the form of carbide powders, causes slight increase of properties of surface layer of investigated steel in comparison to its analogical properties obtained through conventional heat treatment, depending on the laser beam power implemented for remelting. The outcome of the research is an investigation showing the structural mechanisms accompanying laser alloying.