Structure and Diffused Ferroelectric Properties in Ba(Ti0.8Sn0.2)O3 Ceramics
Temperature-dependent Raman scattering, dielectric properties, and Impedance spectra have been carried out on Ba(Ti0.8Sn0.2)O3 ceramic sample. The number of modes observed for the compositions of cubic symmetry is more than that predicted by group theory, and the A1(TO1) and E(TO2) modes become Raman active below the critical temperature (around 300K) in the lower frequency region. This gives evidence that there are some deviations of the local structure from the average global symmetry. Moreover, The characteristic of A1(TO3) mode is confirmed be associated with the diffused dielectric properties. Impedance/modulus analyses indicate that a third resistance-capacitance (RC) response is present in the sample, in addition to the grain and grain-boundary RC elements above 573K. Thus, it probably inferred that the existence of inter- and/or intra-granular surface layers associate with the abnormal dielectric properties, which is different from the normal ferroelectrics. Variation of bulk ac conductivity as a function of temperature shows that Ba(Ti0.8Sn0.2)O3 follows the classical Arrhenius relation.The results show that the activation energy of grains and grain boundaries are 0.61 and ~1.08 eV, respectively.
Jian-Feng Nie and Allan Morton
D. Y. Gui et al., "Structure and Diffused Ferroelectric Properties in Ba(Ti0.8Sn0.2)O3 Ceramics", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 654-656, pp. 1998-2001, 2010