In this study, Mg-xCa (x = 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 %, wt.%, hereafter) and Mg-1Ca-1Y alloys were investigated as new biodegradable bone implant materials. The compressive strength, ultimate strength and hardness of the Mg-Ca alloys increased, whilst the corrosion rate and biocompatibility decreased, with the increase of the Ca content in the Mg-Ca alloys; higher Ca content caused the Mg-Ca alloy to become brittle. Solutions of simulated body fluid (SBF) and modified minimum essential media (MMEM) with the immersion of Mg-xCa and Mg-1Ca-1Y alloys showed strong alkalisation. The yttrium addition to the Mg-Ca alloys does not improve the corrosion resistance of the Mg-1Ca-1Y alloy as expected compared to the Mg-1Ca alloy. It is suggested that Mg-Ca alloys with Ca additions less than 1.0 wt.% exhibited good biocompatibility and low corrosion rate.