The instrumented indentation test (IIT) is a mechanical testing method to determine the hardness and elastic modulus of materials by putting an indenter into a material surface. This technique has now gone beyond normal hardness tests by evaluating additional properties of materials and by allowing testing at much lower forces and indentation depths (micro/nano ranges). This study presents analytic models and procedures for evaluating tensile flow properties and residual stress state using IIT; the tensile flow properties are treated by defining a representative stress/strain beneath a spherical indenter and the residual stress by using a stress-insensitive contact hardness model. The IIT results are compared with those from conventional methods such as uniaxial tensile test and X-ray diffraction. In addition, IIT can be used as a multiscale mapping tool for the mechanical properties of composite materials and constituent phases by using macro/micro/nano indentation system: we made a hardness map of multiphase steel and measured the strength/residual stress distributions of welded pipeline.