Aminoalky cellulose (AmAC) had been synthesized from chloro-deoxy- hydroxyethylcellulose (CDHC), which was prepared from hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) chlorinated with thionyl chloride and then aminated by ethylenediamine. The structures of HEC and AmAC were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The results showed that amino groups from ethylenediamine were grafted onto the HEC after a series of reactions. Compared with the HEC, AmAC had a rougher surface. Effects of experimental parameters on yield and chlorine content of CDHC, yield of AmAC and adsorption quantity for trinitrotoluene (TNT) of AmAC were also studied. Both the yield and chlorine content of CDHC were the highest when 25ml of thionyl chloride was used. Reaction time and dosage of ethylenediamine in the preparing process of AmAC had a great influence on the adsorption ability of AmAC for TNT, but little effect on yield of AmAC. With increased from 80 °C to 120 °C, although the reaction temperature affected slightly the adsorption quantity of AmAC for TNT, the yield of AmAC declined sharply from 1.1 g to 0.55 g. Adsorption amount of AmAC for TNT could reach up to 59.66 mg•g-1 at optimal conditions.