Progress in Positron Annihilation

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Authors: Paweł Horodek, Jerzy Dryzek
Abstract: We present experimental results of measurements of the Doppler broadening of annihilation line and positron annihilation lifetimes in martensitic stainless steel 1.4031 (EN) samples exposed to the dry sliding under different loads. In particular, we tested the subsurface zone under the worn surfaces. As a main result, we obtained information about the defect profiles in this zone and the total extent of the damage region induced by the dry sliding.
Authors: Jerzy Kansy, Aneta Hanc, Magdalena Jabłońska, E. Bernstock-Kopaczyńska, Dawid Giebel
Abstract: The defect structure of Fe28Al samples is examined with the Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. The studies are carried out for samples in as-cast state and after heat treatments: annealing for 24 hours at 900°C (or 1050°C) and either slow cooling with furnace or quenching to oil. The PALS spectra are analyzed using two-state trapping model. Only one type of defects is detected. The positron lifetime in these defects (V) suggests that they are quenched-in Fe-monovacancies (VFe). The vacancy concentration strongly depends on the rate of cooling. Besides, V also depends slightly on the rate of cooling of the material. This fact suggests, according to the predictions of latest theoretical calculations, that V is sensitive to the atomic configuration in the nearest neighborhood of VFe, which give hope to estimate the degree of atomic ordering in alloys by the PALS technique.
Authors: Bożena Zgardzińska, Beata Tyburska, Zbigniew Surowiec
Abstract: Undamaged and damaged tungsten were investigated by means of positron spectroscopy and AFM surface images. Three different lifetimes (corresponding to dislocation loops, mono-vacancies, vacancy clusters and large size voids) were observed with different intensities. AFM shows the transition from hillocks to pinholes after W self-implantation.
Authors: Ewa Dryzek, Jacek Jaworski, Eric Fleury, Andrzej Budziak
Abstract: Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has been applied to study if the microstructure changes in Co80Zr10V10 and Co65Zr10V25 metallic glasses after heat treatment. Samples in as-quenched state were isothermally annealed at chosen temperatures in the temperature range 100°C - 580°C for 1 hour. In spite of differences of chemical composition and magnetic properties the obtained dependencies of positron lifetime on annealing temperature do not differ significantly for lower temperatures. The higher increase of positron lifetime for Co65Zr10V25 than that for Co80Zr10V10 indicates differences in crystallization in the two metallic glasses studied.
Authors: Jerzy Dryzek, Paweł Horodek
Abstract: The results of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, using GEANT4 codes, indicate the enhancement of the fraction of the e+ in the denser regions of the sample embedded by the less dense environment. The positron lifetime measurements, performed for two stacks of layers consisting of pure aluminum and silver do not seem to reveal this effect. Some features of the e+ distribution detected in the experiments are not reproduced by the MC simulations.
Authors: Yoshinori Kobayashi, T. Ichikawa
Abstract: A good correlation is found between ortho-positronium (o-Ps) pick-off annihilation lifetimes and surface tensions of molecular liquids and polymers. Systematic shortening of the o-Ps lifetime with increasing surface tension suggests that the hole for Ps localization in polymers may be that subjected to considerable expansion as in liquids. The driving force of this hole expansion is the large quantum mechanical zero-point energy of a light particle confined in an angstrom size space. The hole expansion is insignificant in a larger nm scale pore, where the zero-point energy is much lowered.
Authors: Yang Yu, Günter Dlubek, Reinhard Krause-Rehberg, Mario Beiner, Elke Hempel
Abstract: Positron lifetime annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) was used to study the temperature- dependence of sub-nanometer size local free volumes in two atactic poly(n-octadecyl methacrylate)s (PODMA) with different molecular weight. These materials exhibit short range layered structure with a self-assembly and crystallization of side chains. From the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime the size of free volume holes and its distribution are calculated. At a temperature Tm=311 ± 5 K, the mean hole volume shows an abrupt and strong increase from 0.15 nm3 to 0.2 nm3, which comes from the melting of side-chains. The reverse effect, attributed to side chain crystallization, was observed during cooling the samples at slightly lower temperatures. The lifetime result of PODMA is compared with semifluorinated polyesters in which the side chain has an oxydecylperfluorodecyl structure (-O-(CH2)10-(CF2)9-CF3). Long chain polymers without side-chains such as polyethylene and short side-chain poly(n-alkyl methacrylate)s: poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PHMA) are also compared with these polymers.
Authors: Giovanni Consolati, Mario Mariani, Fiorenza Quasso
Abstract: Polymerisation and polymer modification are often carried out by means of radiation methods, since irradiation can modify the structure of materials and improve their performance. On the other hand, combined action of ionising radiation and oxygen may induce a degradation of the polymer. Physical changes of different polyesters subjected to gamma irradiation up to 1 MGy are discussed and evidenced by various techniques, mainly viscometry, differential scanning calorimetry and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Viscometry monitors variations in the molecular weight. Calorimetric measurements allow one to detect crystallinity changes. PALS evidences possible irradiation effects on the free volume; furthermore, it supplies information on the chemical modifications induced by oxygen. The results can be explained in terms of the main mechanisms induced by gamma irradiation (chain scission, crosslinking and oxydative degradation), although their importance depends on the dose.
Authors: Eleonora Belousova, Vadim Gustov, Tatiana Medintseva, Aleksandra Polyakova, Eduard Prut, Victor P. Shantarovich
Abstract: The structure of isotactic polypropylene (PP) and its blends with ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer EPDM (0-100%) containing the unvulcanized and the vulcanized rubber phase were studied using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique and thermostimulated luminescence (TSL). Cross-linking in the polymer blends is one of the effective ways to create novel materials with effective industrial properties. Meanwhile, composition of such systems is very complicated since it contains microphases of the dispersed components, cross-linked or not, elements of the cross-linking agents, which have some distribution between the blend components. This distribution, heterogeneity and also variation of elementary free volumes due to cross-linking are the points of interest in the study of polymer blend structures.
Authors: Ryszard Pietrzak, Roman Szatanik
Abstract: The paper presents the results of investigations of the effect of impact pressure (in the range of both elastic and plastic deformations) on the parameters of the positron lifetime spectra in PE-UMHW polymer known under the trade mark Chirulen1120. The changes in the long-living component of the positron lifetime spectrum, connected with the annihilation of o-Ps in the pick-off process, are analyzed in dependence on the impact energy. The impact duration in the Charpy’s tests depending on the impact energy was measured, too. The dependencies of the radius of the volume of empty spaces in which the positronium annihilates, on the impact pressure were determined applying the Eldrup-Tao model.

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