The structurization of a high purity niobium from double electron-beam melted cast microstructure to fine-grained microstructure was completed by equal-channel angular pressing by the Bc route up to a Von Mieses strain of 13.8. In addition, for the viscoplastic behavior study as well as nanostructure and properties improving the hard cyclic viscoplastic deformation, die forging at room temperature and followed heat treatment with low heating rate were conducted. The nanostructure of processed samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction testing. This paper focuses on several new trends in the study of improved mechanical and physical properties of pure niobium, to what purpose these materials will be used in industry. The crystallite size, microstrains and dislocation density in severe plastic deformed pure niobium were calculated and electric conduction was measured. The nanocrystalline microstructure with minimal crystallite size down to 62 nm as mean in cross-section of sample was received. By this the dislocation density varies from 5.0 E+10 to 2.0 E+11 cm-2 and was maximal for pure niobium which has minimal electrical conductivity, maximal value of hkl-parameter and maximal relative microstresses. The microhardness was maximal for sample after 12 passes by Bc route and for samples with 8 and 10 passes followed heat treatment at 170 and 350°C. The mechanisms answerable for the electronic conduction were discussed according to the microstructure evolution in the different directions and for different strain levels.