Characterization of Technological Materials

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Authors: Tsuyoshi Kajitani, Yuzuru Miyazaki, Kei Hayashi, Kunio Yubuta, X.Y. Huang, W. Koshibae
Abstract: Oxide thermoelectrics are relatively new materials that are workable at temperatures in the range of 400K≤T≤1200K. There are several types of thermoelectric oxide, namely, cobalt oxides (p-type semi-conductors), manganese oxides (n-type) and zinc oxides (n-type semi-conductors) for high temperature energy harvesting. The Seebeck coefficient of 3d metal oxide thermoelectrics is relatively high due to either high density of states at Fermi surfaces or spin entropy flow associated with the carrier flow. The spin entropy part dominates the Seebeck coefficient of 3d-metal oxides at temperatures above 300K. Introduction of impurity particles or quantum-well structures to enhance thermionic emission and energy filtering effects for the oxide semiconductors may lead to a significant improvement of thermoelectric performance.
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Authors: G.J. Shyju, S. Dawn Dharma Roy, C. Sanjeeviraja
Abstract: Thin films have become important for basic studies in physics and in many other fields. The immense interest in basic properties of thin films is due to considerable variations in their properties compared to those of the bulk material. Studies of the optical, electrical and magnetic properties, investigations of structural disorder and phase transition and of various surface phenomena are very much interest in research areas. The results obtained by research on basic studies are useful for the technical application of thin films. Thin films have greater deviations in their behavior corresponding to their original bulk materials. Because of small thickness certain physical features are observed such as optical interference, electronic tunneling through an insulating layer, high resistivity, low temperature coefficient of resistance, increase in optical magnetic fields and optical temperatures of superconductors. Material properties of indium zinc oxide thin films and all the techniques used to deposit thin films are summarized with an elaborative account along with our results.
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Authors: S. Nagarani, M. Jayachandran, C. Sanjeeviraja
Abstract: Thin films continue to become more and more integral to numerous applications in today's advancing technologies. In recent years, thin film science has grown world-wide into a major research area. The importance of coatings and the synthesis of new materials for industry have resulted in a tremendous increase of innovative thin film processing technologies. Thin film properties are strongly dependent on the method of deposition, the substrate temperature, the rate of deposition, the background pressure etc. Hardness, adhesion, non porosity, high mobility of charge carriers / insulating properties and chemical inertness, which are possible with a selection of suitable functional materials and deposition techniques. There are number of different techniques that facilitate the deposition of stable thin films of oxide materials on suitable substrates. Material properties of gallium zinc oxide thin films and all the techniques used to deposit thin films are summarized with an elaborative account along with our results.
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Authors: L.C. Nehru, V. Swaminathan, M. Jayachandran, C. Sanjeeviraja
Abstract: A nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) powders have been prepared by a simple, low-temperature initiated, self-propagating and gas producing by microwave-assisted solution combustion process. The effects of temperature on crystalline phase formation and particle size of nanocrystalline SnO2 and its structure have been investigated. It is observed that heat-treated upto 800°C shows tetragonal phase SnO2. It was observed that the average crystallite size of the annealed SnO2 samples is in the range 9 - 43 nm through controlled heat treatment process. The crystal density of the as-prepared powder is 5.850g cm-3 where as the bulk density is 6.998 g cm−3. The microstructure and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and HRTEM it is interesting to note that as-prepared SnO2 sample are almost spherical in shape and average agglomerate crystal size of 0.2 – 0.4 μm with increase in calcination temperature, the samples become better morphology than the as-prepared sample. The crystallographic parameters were refined by XRD pattern and Rietveld refinement using TOPAS-3 and Diamond software was used to construct the structural parameters.
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Authors: S. Saravanakumar, M. Jeya Priya, R. Saravanan
Abstract: Tin oxide material (SnO2) is synthesized in nano scale range and is characterized. The refined X-ray intensity data was obtained from the Reitveld method. The electron density of nano SnO2 is determined using MEM (Maximum Entropy Method). Using one, two and three dimensional MEM maps, the bonding within the atoms is clearly understood. The particle size of SnO2 is also analyzed using XRD and SEM.
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Authors: T.K. Thirumalaisamy, K.J Lakshmi Sri, R. Saravanan
Abstract: The electron density distribution and the local structure of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), chromium doped aluminum oxide (Cr:Al2O3) and vanadium doped aluminum oxide (V:Al2O3) have been studied. Powder X-ray data set of Al2O3 , Cr:Al2O3 and V:Al2O3 is analyzed in terms of cell parameters, thermal vibration parameters, 1D, 2D and 3 Dimensional electron density distributions. The bonding between the atoms using the maximum entropy method (MEM) and bond length distribution using pair distribution function (PDF) has been analyzed. The particle size of Al2O3 , Cr:Al2O3 and V:Al2O3 is also analyzed using XRD and SEM.
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Authors: M. Prema Rani, R. Saravanan
Abstract: Thermal conductivity of three different GaAs crystals, one grown by Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski technique and the other two samples grown by Vertical Bridgman technique have been experimentally measured at temperatures 310 K to 360 K. Two crystals are undoped and semi insulating and one crystal is conductive which is doped with Si and B(Silicon ≈ 4x1015 cm-3 and Boron ≈ 8x 1015cm-3). It has been experimentally observed that doping of silicon and boron gives rise to an increase in thermal conductivity.
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Authors: A. Xavier, D. Usha, J. Gandhi Rajan, M. Malarvizhi
Abstract: Malachite Green is an organic compound that is used as a dyestuff for the materials like silk, leather and paper. As a part of removal of malachite green dye from textile and leather industrial wastes, using activated carbon as adsorbents namely, commercial activated carbon (CAC), rose apple carbon (RAC), coconut shell carbon (CSC) and saw dust carbon (SDC). The percentage of malachite green adsorbed increases with decrease in initial concentration and particle size of adsorbent and increased with increase in contact time, temperature and dose of adsorbent. The pH is highly sensitive for dye adsorption process. The adsorption process followed first order kinetics and the adsorption data with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The first order kinetic equations like Natarajan Khalaf, Lagergren, Bhattacharya and Venkobhachar and intra particle diffusion were found to be applicable. A comparative account of the adsorption capacity of various carbons has been made. These activated carbons are alternative to commercial AC for the removal dyes in General and MG is particular. These results are reported highly efficient and effective and low cost adsorbent for the MG. The thermodynamics parameters are also studied and it obeys spontaneous process. The results are confirmed by before and after adsorption process with the help of the following instrumental techniques viz., FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and SEM photos.
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Authors: A. Xavier, R Sathya, J. Gandhi Rajan, R. Nagarathnam
Abstract: Many industries use dyes and pigments to colorize their products. Large amount different types of dyes enter in to the environment. These dyes are invariably left in the industrial wastes. As a part of removal of Bismark Brown dye from textile and leather industrial wastes, using activated carbon as adsorbents namely, commercial activated carbon (CAC), rose apple carbon (RAC), coconut shell carbon (CSC) and saw dust carbon (SDC). The percentage removal of Bismark-Brown adsorbed increases with decrease in initial concentration and particle size of adsorbent and increased with increase in contact time, temperature and dose of adsorbent. The pH is highly sensitive for dye adsorption process. The adsorption process followed first order kinetics and the adsorption data with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The first kinetic equations like Natarajan Khalaf, Lagergren, Bhattacharya and Venkobhachar and intra-particle diffusion were found to be applicable. A comparative account of the adsorption capacity of various carbons has been made. These activated carbons are alternative to commercial AC for the removal dyes in General and Bismark-brown (BB) is particular. These results are reported highly efficient and effective and low cost adsorbent for the BB. The thermodynamics parameters are also studied and it obeys spontaneous process. The results are confirmed by before and after adsorption process with the help of the following instrumental techniques viz., FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and SEM analyze.
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