Thermoelectric Energy Conversion and Ceramic Thermoelectrics
Oxide thermoelectrics are relatively new materials that are workable at temperatures in the range of 400K≤T≤1200K. There are several types of thermoelectric oxide, namely, cobalt oxides (p-type semi-conductors), manganese oxides (n-type) and zinc oxides (n-type semi-conductors) for high temperature energy harvesting. The Seebeck coefficient of 3d metal oxide thermoelectrics is relatively high due to either high density of states at Fermi surfaces or spin entropy flow associated with the carrier flow. The spin entropy part dominates the Seebeck coefficient of 3d-metal oxides at temperatures above 300K. Introduction of impurity particles or quantum-well structures to enhance thermionic emission and energy filtering effects for the oxide semiconductors may lead to a significant improvement of thermoelectric performance.
T. Kajitani et al., "Thermoelectric Energy Conversion and Ceramic Thermoelectrics", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 671, pp. 1-20, 2011