In order to evaluate the effect of natural fiber lumen size on the transverse thermal conductivity of the unidirectional natural fiber-polymer composite, a two-dimensional unit cell model of natural fiber-polymer composite was studied using finite element method (FEM). In this study, the FE cell model was kept in the steady state thermal condition. The results showed that the effective transverse thermal conductivity K has a relationship with the geometrical ratio (α, 0<α<1) of lumen radius (rl) to fiber radius (rf). When the lumen size ratio α is small, K increases with increasing fiber volume fraction Vf, while K decreases as the Vf increases when α is large. It indicates that the thermal property of composites changes with fiber’s lumen size. When a composite is designed for thermal insulation material, we should choose the natural fiber with large lumen, and to design thermal conductive composite, small lumen size should be used. The result from present method was compared with experimental data and shows a good agreement.