Welding Residual Stresses Depending on Solid-State Transformation Behaviour Studied by Numerical and Experimental Methods


Article Preview

The development of high-strength structural steels with yield strengths up to 1000 MPa results in the requirement of suitable filler materials for welding. Recently designed low transformation temperature (LTT) alloys offer appropriate strength. The martensitic phase transformation during welding induces compressive residual stress in the weld zone. Therefore, the mechanical properties of welded joints can be improved. The present paper illustrates numerical simulation of the residual stresses in LTT-welds taking into account the effect of varying Ms/Mf-temperatures, and therefore different retained austenite contents, on the residual stresses. Residual stress distributions measured by synchrotron diffraction are taken as evaluation basis. A numerical model for the simulation of transformation affected welds is established and can be used for identification of appropriate Ms-temperatures considering the content of retained austenite.



Edited by:

Paolo Scardi and Cristy L. Azanza Ricardo




C. Heinze et al., "Welding Residual Stresses Depending on Solid-State Transformation Behaviour Studied by Numerical and Experimental Methods", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 681, pp. 85-90, 2011

Online since:

March 2011




[1] Withers, P.J., et al., Residual stress part 2 - nature and origins, 2001, Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 17, pp.366-375.

[2] Kannengiesser, T., et al., Effects of the load history on the residual stress distribution in welded component, 2006, Welding in the World, Vol. 50, pp.11-17.

[3] Francis, J.A., et al., Welding residual stresses in ferritic power plant steels, 2007, Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 23, pp.1009-1020.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/174328407x213116

[4] Diéz, F.M., Development of a compressive residual stress field around a weld toe by means of phase transformations, 2008, Welding in the World - Research Supplement, Vol. 52, pp.63-78.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03266655

[5] Kromm, A., et al., Determination of residual stresses in low transformation temperature (LTT-) welds metals using X-ray and high energy synchrotron radiati, 2009, Welding in the World, Vol. 53, pp.3-16.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03266687

[6] Kannengiesser, T., et al., Residual stresses and in-situ measurement of phase transformation in low transformation temperature (LTT) welding material, 2009, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, pp.755-762.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1154/1.2951824

[7] Francis, J. A., et al., The effects of filler material metal transformation temperature on residual stresses in a high strength steel weld, 2009, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 131, pp.1-15.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3122036

[8] Ohta, A., et al., Fatigue strength improvement of lap joints of thin steel plate using low-transformation-temperature welding wire, 2003, Welding Journal, Vol. 82, p. 78s-83s.

[9] Dai, H., et al., Characterizing phase transformations and their effects on ferritic weld residual stresses with X-rays and neutron, 2008, Metallurgical and Materials Transaction A, Vol. 39A, pp.3070-3078.

[10] Murakawa, H., et al., Effect of Phase Transformation onset Temperature on Residual Stress in Welded Thin Steel Plate, 2008, Transactions of JWRI, Vol. 37, pp.75-80.

[11] Mikami, Y., et al., Angular distortion of fillet welded T joint using low transformation temperature welding wire, 2009, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 14, pp.97-105.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/136217108x382972

[12] Yamamoto, J., et al., Analysis of martensite transformation behaviour in welded joint using low transformation temperature welding wire, 2010, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, Vol. 15, pp.104-110.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/136217109x12568132624442

[13] Kromm, A., et al., In-situ observation of phase transformations during welding of low transformation temperature filler material, 2010, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 638-642, pp.3769-3774.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/msf.638-642.3769

[14] Koistinen, D.P., et al., A general equation prescribing the extent of the austenite-martensite transformation in pure iron-carbon alloys and plain carbon steels, 1959, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 7, pp.59-50.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6160(59)90170-1

[15] Radaj, D., Welding residual stresses and distortion, Calculation and measurement, DVS-Verlag, Düsseldorf, (2003).

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.