Shrinkage Porosity Simulation of Spheroidal Graphite Iron Castings Based on Macro-Micro Models
Shrinkage porosity is often found in Spheroidal graphite iron (S. G. Iron) castings because of the mushy zone and special volume change during their solidification. Although the volume expansion is very important to the shrinkage porosity simulation of S.G. Iron castings, conventional methods for predicting the porosity defects do not consider it. A Series of macro-micro models such as macro heat transfer calculation and microstructure formation simulation are proposed to simulate the solidification of S. G. Iron castings. The nucleation and growth models are employed to calculate the accurate latent heat and volume change especially graphite expansion during the solidification. The pressure induced by graphite expansion is introduced as a parameter to predict the shrinkage porosity and a new shrinkage porosity criterion is developed. Cooling curves and solid fraction of each phase are compared with experimental castings. At the same time, the porosity area ratio of castings is compared with the results calculated by several porosity criterions. The results show that the new shrinkage porosity simulation criterion of S. G. Iron castings based on macro-micro models is accurate on shrinkage porosity shape, size and distribution simulation.
Enhou Han, Guanghong Lu and Xiaolin Shu
H. L. Zheng et al., "Shrinkage Porosity Simulation of Spheroidal Graphite Iron Castings Based on Macro-Micro Models", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 689, pp. 190-197, 2011