The relationship between microstructure and anodic oxidation film on 6061 aluminum alloy dedicated to plasma etcher were mainly studied by OM, SEM and TEM. The results show that the quality of anodic oxidation film has close relationship with the microstructure of materials, the distribution of element and the morphology of secondary phases. The microstructure of foreign 6061 aluminum alloy is uniform, and there are not obviously segregation and cavity. Two kinds of secondary phases disperse over the grain, one is rich-Fe phase, and the other is Mg2Si. Certainly there are also few secondary phases distributing along the grain boundary. The sizes of all secondary phases are almost below 5mm. The size of rich-Fe phases in homemade aluminum alloys are about from 2mm to 15mm, these big-size phases will bring pin-hole defects, which form some channels sending F+ etc. into the matrix of aluminum alloy, then not only the equipment will be destroyed at last, but also products will be polluted. The evaluation on microstructure of aluminum alloy will provide scientific basis for nationalization of plasma etcher.