In the present article, the phase identification of four magnesium alloys: Mg-9wt%Al, Mg-8wt%Al-2wt%Ca-0.5wt%Sr, Mg-5wt%Y-4wt%RE and Mg-3wt%Nd-1wt%Gd were studied. The results showed that Mg-9wt%Al alloy contains only the Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase in α-Mg matrix. As-cast microstructure of Mg-8wt%Al-2wt%Ca-0.5wt%Sr alloy consist of α-Mg matrix with (Al,Mg)2Ca and (Al,Mg)4Sr phases. The Mg-5wt%Y-4wt%RE alloy showed several phases. This alloy was characterized by a solid solution structure α-Mg with eutectic α-Mg + Mg14Y2Nd on grain boundaries. The precipitates of MgY, Mg2Y, Mg24Y5 phases have been also observed. The Mg-3wt%Nd-1wt%Gd alloy composed mainly of a solid solution structure α-Mg with eutectic α-Mg + Mg3(Nd,Gd) on the grain boundaries. The regular precipitates of MgGd3 phase have been also observed.