Super Hybrid Materials
Various composite materials have been developed, but in many cases problems arise due to the combined materials such as fabrication becoming difficult because of the significant increase in viscosity, and transparency of the polymer is sacrificed. These issues can be overcome by controlling the nanointerface; however, this is considered as a difficult task since nanoparticles (NPs) easily aggregate in polymer matrices because of their high surface energy. Organic functionalization of inorganic NPs is required to increase affinity between NPs and polymers. For fabricating multi-functional materials, we proposed a new method to synthesize organic modified NPs by using supercritical water. Because organic molecules and metal salt aqueous solutions are miscible in supercritical water and water molecules serve as acid/base catalysts for the reactions, hybrid organic/inorganic NPs can be synthesized under the supercritical condition. The hybrid NPs show high affinity for the organic solvent and the polymer matrix, which leads to the fabrication of these super hybrid NPs. How to release the heat from the devices is the bottle neck of developing the future power devices, and thus nanohybrid materials of polymer and ceramics are required to achieve both high thermal conductivity and easy thin film flexible fabrication, namely trade-off functions. Surface modification of the BN particles via supercritical hydrothermal synthesis improves the affinity between BN and the polymers. This increases the BN loading ratio in the polymers, thus resulting in high thermal conductivity. Transparent dispersion of high refractive index NPs, such as TiO2 and ZrO2, in the polymers is required to fabricate optical materials. By adjusting the affinity between NPs and the polymers, we could fabricate super hybrid nanomaterials, which have flexiblility and high refractive index and transparency.
B. J. Ruck and T. Kemmitt
T. Adschiri et al., "Super Hybrid Materials", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 700, pp. 145-149, 2012