Surface Modification of High Carbon High Chromium, EN31 and Hot Die Steel Using Powder Mixed EDM Process


Article Preview

This paper investigates the effect of electric discharge machining (EDM) process parameters and powder mixed in dielectric on surface properties of three die steel work materials; namely High Carbon High Chromium (HCHCr), EN 31 and Hot Die Steel (HDS). The mechanism of material deposition from the suspended powder and/or tool electrode is reported. Current emerged as the most significant factor affecting the microhardness along with powder mixed in the dielectric and electrode material. Amongst the two electrode materials, copper-tungsten along with tungsten powder had the best microhardness. Selected samples were analyzed for X-ray Diffraction (XRD) followed by microstructure analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed significant material transfer from the electrode as well as powder either in free form or in compound form. It was concluded that surface modification of die steels can be done by incorporating simple modifications in the EDM set-up resulting in higher microhardness and superior wear resistance of the machined surface.



Edited by:

Rupinder Singh




A. Bhattacharya et al., "Surface Modification of High Carbon High Chromium, EN31 and Hot Die Steel Using Powder Mixed EDM Process", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 701, pp. 43-59, 2012

Online since:

October 2011




[1] K.H. Prabhudev, Handbook of Heat Treatment of Steels, Tata McGraw Hill Publication, New Delhi, (2000).

[2] S. Kumar, R. Singh, T.P. Singh, B.L. Sethi, Surface modification by electrical discharge machining: A review. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209(2009) 3675–3687.


[3] H.K. Kansal, S. Singh, P. Kumar, Effect of silicon powder mixed EDM on machining rate of AISI D2 die steel, J. Manuf. Proc. 9(2007) 13-21.


[4] X.Y. Cheng and L. Shi, Effect of La2O3 on microstructure and sliding wear properties of TiC4 ceramic coating produced by electrical discharge method, Surf Engg. 23(2007) 439-442.


[5] Y. Uno, A. Okada, S. Cetin, Surface modification of EDMed surface with powder mixed fluid. 2nd Int. Conf. on Design and Production of Dies and Molds, (2001).

[6] P. Pecas, E. Henriques, Effect of powder concentration and dielectric flow in the surface morphology in electrical discharge machining with powder mixed dielectric (PMD-EDM), Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 37(2008) 1120-1132.


[7] P. Pecas, E. Henriques, Influence of silicon powder-mixed dielectric on conventional electrical discharge machining, Int. J. Mach. Tools & Manuf. 43(2003) 1465-1471.


[8] J. Simao, H.G. Lee, D.K. Aspinwall, R.C. Dewes, E.N. Aspinwall, Workpiece surface modification using electrical discharge machining, Int. J. Mac. Tools & Manuf. 43(2003) 121-128.


[9] K. Furutani, A. Sanetoa, M.N. Takezawaa, H. Miyakeb, Accretion of titanium carbide by electrical discharge machining with powder suspended in working fluid, J. Int. Soc. Preci. Engg. Nanotechnol. 25(2001) 138-144.


[10] Y.S. Wong, L.C. Lim, I. Rahuman, W.M. Tee, Near-mirror-finish phenomena in EDM using powder-mixed dielectric, J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 79(1998) 30-40.


[11] K.L. Wu, B.H. Yan, F.Y. Huang, S.C. Chen, Improvement of surface finish on SKD steel using electro-discharge machining with aluminum and surfactant added dielectric, Int. J. Mach. Tools & Manuf. 45(2005) 1195-1201.


[12] M.L. Jeswani, Effect of the addition of graphite powder to kerosene used as a dielectric fluid in electrical discharge machining, J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 70(1981) 133-139.


[13] G.S. Prihandana, M. Mahardika, M. Hamdi, Y.S. Wong, K. Mitsui, Effect of micro powder suspension and ultrasonic vibration of dielectric fluid in micro-EDM process- Taguchi approach, Int. J. Mac. Tools & Manuf. 49(2009) 1035-1041.


[14] W.S. Zhao, Q.G. Meng, Z.L. Wang, The application of research on powder mixed EDM in rough machining, J Mater Process Technol. 129(2002) 30-33.

[15] Q.Y. Ming, L.Y. He, Powder suspension dielectric fluid for EDM, J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 52(1995) 44-54.

[16] J. Kozak, M. Rozenek, L. Dabrowski, Study of electrical discharge machining using powder-suspended working media, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs, Part B: J Engg. Manuf. 217(2003) 1597-1602.


[17] H.K. Kansal, S. Singh, P. Kumar, Parametric optimization of powder mixed electrical discharge machining by response surface methodology, J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 169(2005) 427-436.


[18] Y.F. Chen, Y.J. Lin, Y.C. Lin, S.L. Chen, L.R. Hsu, Optimization of electrodischarge machining parameters on ZrO2 ceramic using Taguchi method, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs, Part B: J Engg. Manuf. 224(2010) 195-205.

[19] A. Bhattacharya, A. Batish, G. Singh, Optimization of Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining using Dummy Treated Experimental Design with Analytic Hierarchy Process, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs, Part B: J. Engg. Manuf. 2011, accepted manuscript.


[20] Y. Tzeng, F. Chen, Investigation into some surface characteristics of electrical discharged machined SKD-11 using powder suspension dielectric oil, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 170(2005) 385-391.


[21] H.M. Chow, B.H. Yan, F.Y. Huang, J.C. Hung, Study of added powder in kerosene for the micro slit machining of titanium alloy using electrical discharge machining, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 101(2000) 95-103.


[22] S. Kumar, R. Singh, T.P. Singh, B.L. Sethi, Comparison of material transfer in electrical discharge machining of AISI H13 die steel, Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs, Part C: J Mech Engg Sciences, 223(2009) 1733-1740.


[23] P.J. Ross, Taguchi Technique for Quality Engineering, 2nd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, (1995).

[24] Gurpreet Singh, Experimentation for improvement in surface properties and process optimization of die steels by using powder mixed dielectric in EDM process, ME Thesis, Thapar University, Patiala, 2010. List of Tables Table 1: Factors studied and their levels Table 2: L27 Experimental design Table 3: Chemical composition of workpiece materials Table 4: Chemical composition of electrode materials Table 5: Results for micro hardness at non-deposited and deposited region Table 6: ANOVA for micro hardness at deposited and non-deposited region Table 7: Summary of XRD analysis List of Figures Figure 1: L27 Linear Graph used for L27 OA design Figure 2: Schematic and actual of the experimental setup for powder mixed EDM Figure 3: Workpiece (a) before and (b) after machining; (c) EDM tool Figure 4: Main effect plot for microhardness at (a) non-deposited, (b) deposited region Figure 5: XRD pattern of the samples after machining with powder mixed EDM Figure 6: SEM images of the samples after machining with powder mixed EDM.


Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.