Development of Lean Alloyed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Reduced Tendency to Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement


Article Preview

Hydrogen gas is believed to play a more important role for energy supply in future instationary and mobile applications. In most cases, metallic materials are embrittled when hydrogen atoms are dissolved interstitially into their lattice. Concerning steels, in particular the ductility of ferritic grades is degraded in the presence of hydrogen. In contrast, austenitic steels usually show a lower tendency to hydrogen embrittlement. However, the so-called “metastable” austenitic steels are prone to hydrogen environmental embrittlement (HEE), too. Here, AISI 304 type austenitic steel was tensile tested in air at ambient pressure and in a 400 bar hydrogen gas atmosphere at room temperature. The screening of different alloys in the compositional range of the AISI 304 standard was performed with the ambition to optimize alloying for hydrogen applications. The results of the mechanical tests reveal the influence of the alloying elements Cr, Ni, Mn and Si on HEE. Besides nickel, a positive influence of silicon and chromium was found. Experimental results are supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning austenite stability and stacking fault energy. All in all, the results of this work are useful for alloy design for hydrogen applications. A concept for a lean alloyed austenitic stainless steel is finally presented.



Materials Science Forum (Volumes 706-709)

Main Theme:

Edited by:

T. Chandra, M. Ionescu and D. Mantovani






S. Weber et al., "Development of Lean Alloyed Austenitic Stainless Steels with Reduced Tendency to Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 706-709, pp. 1041-1046, 2012

Online since:

January 2012




[1] K. Nohara, Y. Ono, N. Ohashi, Composition and grain size dependencies of strain-induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic stainless steels, Journal of ISIJ 63 (1977) 5, 212-222.

[2] L. Zhang, M. Wen, M. E. A. Imade, Effect of nickel equivalent on hydrogen gas embrittlement of austenitic stainless steels based on type 316 at low temperatures, Acta Materialia 56 (14) (2008) 3414-3421.

DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2008.03.022

[3] G. Han, J. He, S. Fukuyama, Effect of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen environment embrittlement of sensitized austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures, Acta Materialia 46 (13) (1998) 4559-4570.

DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(98)00136-0

[4] R. Louthan, G. R. Caskey, J. A. Donovan, Hydrogen embrittlement of metals, Materials Science and Engineering 10 (6) (1972) 357.

DOI: 10.1016/0025-5416(72)90109-7

[5] K. Ishida, Direct Estimation of Stacking Fault Energy by Thermodynamic Analysis, phys. stat. sol. (a) 36, 717 (1976), 717-728.

DOI: 10.1002/pssa.2210360233

[6] I. A. Yakubtsov, A. Ariapour, D. D. Perovic, Effect of nitrogen on stacking fault energy of f. c. c. iron-based alloys, Acta Materialia 47 (1999) 4, 1271–1279.

DOI: 10.1016/s1359-6454(98)00419-4

[7] A.P. Miodownik, The calculation of stacking fault energies in Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, Calphad 2 (3) (1978) 207-226.

DOI: 10.1016/0364-5916(78)90010-x

[8] L. Mujica, Development of High-Strength Corrosion-Resistant Austenitic TWIP Steels with C+N, PhD thesis, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bochum, Germany, (2010).

[9] J. Talonen, H. Hänninen, Formation of shear bands and strain-induced martensite during plastic deformation of metastable austenitic stainless steels, Acta Materialia 55 (2007) 6108–6118.

DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2007.07.015

[10] S. Weber, M. Martin, W. Theisen, Computer assisted development of high alloyed steels for hydrogen applications, HTM J. Heat Treatm. Mat. 65 (2010) 4, 230-234.

DOI: 10.3139/105.110062

[11] T. P. Perng, C. J. Altstetter, Comparison of hydrogen gas embrittlement of austenitic and ferritic stainless-steels, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 18 (1) (1987) 123-134.

DOI: 10.1007/bf02646229

[12] M. G. S. Ferreira, N. E. Hakiki, G. Goodlet, S. Faty, A. M. P Simoes, M. Da Cunha Belo, Influence of the temperature of film formation on the electronic structure of oxide films formed on 304 stainless steel, Electrochimica Acta 46 (2001).

DOI: 10.1016/s0013-4686(01)00658-2

[13] T. P. Perng, C. J. Altstetter, Effects of deformation on hydrogen permeation in austenitic stainless-steels, Acta Metallurgica 34 (9) (1986) 1771-1781.

DOI: 10.1016/0001-6160(86)90123-9

[14] T. Michler, J. Naumann, Hydrogen embrittlement of Cr-Mn-N austenitic stainless steels, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35 (3) (2010) 1485-1492.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.10.050

[15] T. P. Perng, C. J. Altstetter, Hydrogen effects in austenitic stainless-steels, Materials Science and Engineering A 129 (1) (1990) 99-107.

DOI: 10.1016/0921-5093(90)90348-7

[16] S. Weber, M. Martin, W. Theisen Lean-alloyed austenitic stainless steel with high resistance against hydrogen environment embrittlement, submitted to Materials Science and Engineering A.

DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2011.06.049

[17] V. G. Gavriljuk, V. N. Shivanyuk, B. D. Shanina, Change in the electron structure caused by C, N and H atoms in iron and its effect on their interaction with dislocations, Acta Materialia 53 (19) (2005) 5017-5024.

DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2005.07.028

In order to see related information, you need to Login.