First-Principle Investigation of Lithium Intercalation Behavior of a (3, 3) Carbon Nanotube
Using first-principle calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) the stabilityof a (3, 3) carbon nanotube (CNT) intercalated with lithium atoms, with respect to their position aswell as Li/C ratio, is studied. On varying the distance of a lithium atom from the axis of the CNT in theradial direction, through the center of a graphitic hexagon, minimum of energy of the system occursat a distance of 3.8 °A from the axis. Keeping the distance of the lithium atom from the tube axis fixedat 3.8 °A, intercalation energy (E) was calculated while the number of lithium atoms is varied fromone (Li1C12, −0.511 eV) to six (Li6C12, −0.615 eV). It is found that the intercalation becomes morefavorable with the increase in number of lithium atoms intercalated and increase in the symmetryof the intercalated system. The maximum intercalation energy difference between successive lithiumatom additions lay within 0.1 eV.
K. S. Virdi and K.C. H. Kumar, "First-Principle Investigation of Lithium Intercalation Behavior of a (3, 3) Carbon Nanotube", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 736, pp. 27-31, 2013