Energy, Environment and Functional Materials

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Authors: Yu Feng Wu, Yi Fan Gu, Yan Mei Li
Abstract: Compared to incandescent bulbs, the advantages of the fluorescent lamps (such as less energy consumed and longer life expectancy) have greatly contributed to their rising use all around China, which leads to an increase in the number of the abandoned fluorescent lamps when they reach their end of life. However, their recovery and recycling (R&R) rate is still at a low level because it is lacking a complete standard system. In order to raise the R&R rate of abandoned fluorescent lamps in China. In this investigation the characteristics of the R&R standard system of abandoned fluorescent lamps in the developed countries has been analyzed, the deficiencies of the existing R&R standards studied, and a framework of the system suitable for China built.
Authors: Chen Li, Su Ping Cui, Xian Zheng Gong, Xian Ce Meng, Bo Xue Sun, Yu Liu
Abstract: The detailed life cycle assessment of heavy-duty truck for highway transport in China is conducted by Centre of National Material Life Cycle Assessment (CNMLCA). The input of energy and output of pollutants emissions are documented as the life cycle inventory (LCI). The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results calculated with the CML method show that the hotspot of environmental impacts from transport in China. The environmental benefits from implementations of European emissions standards in China for transport are also analyzed. The analysis shows that the acidification potential (AP) makes the most huge contribution to total environmental impact, up to 33.7%. As the second hotsopt, global warming potential (GWP) takes up 26.83% of total environmental impact. Photochemical oxidant formation potential (POCP) takes up 23.42% of total environmental impact, which is more or less the same comparing with the result of GWP. Eutrophication potential (EP) takes up 15.05% of total environmental impact. The last but not the least environmental impact category - human toxicity potential (HTP), only takes up 0.95% of total environmental impact. If the heavy metal and dioxin emissions are also considered, maybe the results will be changed and the HTP will take more in the whole environmental impact. It can be concluded that if we pay more attention on SO2 emissions especially NOx emissions reduction, the acidification and photochemical smog would be relieved a lot and the total environmental impact can be decreased a lot. More punishment on overload may be a good choice to reduce environmental load of heavy truck of highway transport in China.
Authors: Ya Li Wang, Su Ping Cui, Hui Wang, Shi Jie Dong, Yan Yao
Abstract: Based on the physical and chemical properties of carbide slag, the contents of heavy metals in effluent came from carbide slag drying process were studied, and then the composition of exhaust gas emitted from the carbide slag drying process and calcinations process of raw materials prepared with carbide slag was detected, in order to know whether there are harmful or corrosive gases released and the effect of the emissions on the environment and related equipments. The results indicate that the exhaust gases emitted from the calcination process of raw meal prepared with carbide slag is mainly composed of CO2 and water vapor, and is free from harmful gases. However, a lot of water in carbide slag during the pre-heat and decomposition process under high temperature would accelerate the corrosion of equipments. Simultaneously, a small number of heavy metal ions contained in the carbide slag can cause environmental pollution and sulfides would be adverse to the cement calcination process resulting in the crust blockage of kiln.
Authors: Qiong Wu, Rui Rong You, Qiu Ping Wu, Fei Yun Chen, Yan Yu
Abstract: A novel Al–Si–Fe–Ca composite material for phosphate removal in wastewater treatment was made by using Al (OH)3,Fe2O3,CaO and silica powder as raw materials. Sorption data modelling with a pH range of 3–12, P concentrations of 3,5,7,9, 11,13, 15mg L−1, and an ambient temperature of 23°C indicated that an optimal removal of P occurred at pH 6.0. A maximum removal of 99.68% was found for 11mg L−1 (pH of 6). Langmuir isotherm best described theadsorption processwith a maximumadsorption capacity of 8.60mg g−1. Three kinetic models (apseudo-first-order, a pseudo-second-order (PSO) and Elovich) were also applied,and the results showed that the PSOmodel best described the data. SEM and EDAX analysis confirmed that P was adsorbed to the surface of the composite material. This study demonstrates that the composite adsorbent is suitable for use in wastewater treatment, with P removal of the solids being preferential and spontaneous.
Authors: Jie Guo, Feng Gao, Zhi Hong Wang, Yu Liu, Jiang Yuan Hu, Zhu Li
Abstract: Aluminum is an essential material for the construction and development of national economy, however the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused by its production have been noticed by China’s government gradually. In this study, the life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions caused by the production of primary aluminum in different years in China were calculated, and the correlation between GHG emissions and some important factors i.e. resource consumption and procedure energy consumption was analyzed. The final results show that for GHG emissions, electricity is the major contributor that accounts for 68.5% of the total, followed by the emissions of anode effect and calcination of limestone, which accounts for 7.9% and 6.8% respectively, and the percentages other factors account for less than 6%. The results also show that the calcination of limestone, combustion of coal gas and consumption of electricity are the three main factors which have the largest correlation degree with GHG emissions, and their correlation degrees are 0.96, 0.94 and 0.90 respectively. Therefore, decreasing the consumption of coal gas and improving the efficiency of the calcination of limestone are effective ways to decrease the GHG emissions of primary aluminum production.
Authors: Yu Feng Zhang, Xian Zheng Gong, Zhi Hong Wang, Yu Liu
Abstract: Transportation is an important part of industrial production systems, with serious energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this study, environment impact of road transportation, river freight in the Yangtze River, and railway transportation was established and analyzed by life cycle assessment method. The analysis results show that CO2 is the largest emission of pollutants for freight transport in China. abiotic depletion potential (ADP) of electric locomotives significantly lower than the other five kinds of shipping methods, only 3.2% of diesel locomotive, 3.9% of the Yangtze barges fleet; 1.2% of the Yangtze Cargo vessel, 0.2% of heavy-duty trucks and 0.1% of light-duty trucks. The results show that accomplishing the same cargo turnover, light-duty truck has the largest environmental impact, while the Electric locomotive freight has the minimum environmental impact. Although the environmental impact of river freight transport is greater than rail transport, but it is far less than road transport.
Authors: Xiao Peng Li, Wei Wang, Bin Jiang, Yu Ping Jian
Abstract: Corrugated box, as a kind of packaging product in the paper packing industry, fulfills the requirements on China’s circular economy development, and has become one of the most widely adopted containers for modern packing. The analysis of corrugated box has shown that the main affection of corrugated box were respiratory inorganics, climate change and acidification/eutrophication. The critical point has been found in respiratory inorganics which normalization result is 50.64, and the impact categories showed climate change was 898793.5 kg CO2-eq in the system. The serious life cycle stages were the manufacture of base paper and cardboard/corrugated box.
Authors: Qian Jin Mao, Qiu Rui Lv, Ya Li Wang, Xiao Yu Ma, Rui Wang, Su Ping Cui, Zi Ming Wang
Abstract: To discuss the effect of energy saving of heat-reflective coating on building, the heat gain of exterior building envelope in summer and winter in Beijing has been calculated. The results indicated that the higher the reflectivity of coating, the better the energy saving effect. The energy consumption of roof and different direction walls were analyzed. The energy saving effect on roof is the best, however the effect is not obvious on the east and west walls. The heat reflective coating has no effect on north wall but exhibits effect on south wall. The energy saving effect of brick red heat-reflective coating is not obvious compared with the common brick red coating.
Authors: Xiao Yu Ma, Li Li Wang, Su Ping Cui, Ya Li Wang
Abstract: In the present work, a green and sustainable route for preparation of hydrochars and silica from a bio-resource (rice husk) under low temperature and atmospheric pressure was described. This route was achieved with the catalysis of sulfuric acid and NH4F. The sphere-like carbon materials with regular size of about 500nm were obtained at 95°C for 6 h when the acid concentration was 42% and 52%. The obtained yield of silica reached up to 94.6% and the particle size was 50-60nm. The morphology of the hydrochars was controllable by changing the concentration of sulfuric acid. Microstructure of the precipitated silica powder was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The preparation conditions were determined and the recyclability of the process was confirmed experimentally. All the reactants and byproducts were recyclable in this process, without the waste emissions.
Authors: Xian Ce Meng, Chen Li, Zhi Hong Wang, Xian Zheng Gong, Yu Liu, Bo Xue Sun
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to conduct a life cycle inventory (LCI) case study for marble mining in China. The scope focuses on the whole life of marble mining. The functional unit is “per cubic meter of marble block”. The LCI data, including the input of energy and natural resources and the output of pollutant emissions, were collected on-site. The LCI results show that if the waste quarries could be recovered after the exploration, the environmental damages from the marble decorative materials would be much less. The environmental impacts of fresh water consumptions are also discussed. Some suggestions and recommendations on how to improve the environmental performance, at the same time the marble materials can be produced to support the increasing sales, are made. In the future, the land use and the mine recovery should be discussed.

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