Geopolymer and Green Technology Materials

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Authors: Omar A. Abdulkareem, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah, Kamarudin Hussin, Khairul Nizar Ismail
Abstract: The lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) systems were prepared using a lightweight aggregate (LWA) of different size and grading. The diversity in the LWA size and grading led to various physical properties like oven-dry (OD) density, water absorption and total porosity characteristics for the resultant LWAGCs. These physical properties were significantly affected and controlled thermal behavior of the concretes after exposure to elevated temperature of 800 °C. The results of the mechanical and physical test conducted to the unexposed LWAGCs showed that the OD-density and compressive strength increased as the LWA maximum and minimum size decreased. In contrast, the water absorption and total porosity of the unexposed LWAGC were increased with increasing of the LWA maximum and minimum size. Thus, the lowest OD-density LWAGC possessed the highest water absorption and total porosity which resulted in lowest compressive strength, whereas, it has the minimal strength loss after exposure to the elevated temperature. The water absorption and total porosity of the unexposed LWAGCs were indirectly implies the permeability characteristics of the concretes which is controllers the thermal behavior of the LWAGC at elevated temperatures.
Authors: Norlia Mohamad Ibrahim, Leong Qi Wen, Roshazita Che Amat, Taksiah Abdul Majid, Nur Liza Rahim, Shamshinar Shamsuddin
Abstract: The depletion of natural resources in the production of coarse aggregate are very crucial. Construction materials are solely depends on natural granite in the making of cement composite. Therefore , there is an urgency need to develop new alternatives material that can replace the usage of granite in concrete production. In this study, LBA have been produced to cater this problem. It is made from a mixture of bubbles from foam and ordinary portland cement. The ratio of the raw materials used is 1 part of bubbles and 2 part of ordinary Portland cement. Its manufacturing process does not involving any sintering process so it will part help to reduce energy comsuption at about 30%. The properties and characteristics of the LBA such as density, specific gravity, water absorption, strength were investigated. Results shown that the specific gravity of LBA was 1.00, water absorption was 19.44%, dry bulk density was between 730 – 800 kg/m3 and dry loose bulk density was ranged from 700 to 730 kg/m3 and the strength of aggregates is 14.00 MPa. It is found that the LBA can be used as a partial replacement of granite in the production of concrete. Keywords: LBA, concrete, density
Authors: Nur Liza Rahim, Roshazita Che Amat, Norlia Mohamad Ibrahim, Shamshinar Salehuddin, Syakirah Afiza Mohammed, Mustaqqim Abdul Rahim
Abstract: Glass dust waste creates chronic environmental problems, mainly due to the inconsistency of waste glass streams. Glass is widely used in our lives through manufactured products such as sheet glass, bottles, glassware, and vacuum tubing. Glass is an ideal material for recycling. The use of recycled glass helps in energy saving. The increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up inspections on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields. One of its significant contributions is to the construction field where the waste glass was reused for concrete production. The properties of concretes containing glass dust waste as fine aggregate were investigated in this study. Glass dust waste was used as a partial replacement for sand at 10%, 20% and 50% of concrete mixes. Compression strength for 7, 14 and 28 days concrete of age were compared with those of concrete made with natural fine aggregates. The results proved that highest strength activity given by glass dust waste after 28 days. The compressive strength of specimens with 10% glass dust waste content were 32.9373 MPa, higher than the concrete control specimen at 28 days. Using glass dust waste in concrete is an interesting possibility for economy on waste disposal sites and conservation of natural resources.
Authors: Roszilah Hamid, M.A. Zubir
Abstract: In this study, recycled glass is used to replace the natural fine aggregate in different mix proportions to obtain the optimum combination that will produce the highest strength. The control samples are Grade 30 ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC) containing 100% natural sand and coarse aggregate. The recycled glass concretes contain 70% natural fine aggregate + 30% size 300 micron crushed glass (Sample 2), and 70% fine aggregate + 15% size 300 micron crushed glass + 15% size greater than 300 micron crushed glass (Sample 3). The compressive strengths of the concrete samples with recycled glass are higher than the control samples at all ages of 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. At age 60 days, the strength gain of the control samples shows no significant increment but both samples that include recycled glass still show significant increment in strength. It is found that recycled glass performed better when utilised at size 300 microns and less. The recorded strength of the control, Sample 2 and 3 at 90 days are 47, 61 and 55 MPa.
Authors: Mohammad Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah, Che Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Hussin Kamarudin, Muhammad Faheem Mohd Tahir
Abstract: A filament winding system was developed for manufacturing various types of fiber/cement composite materials. In general, filament winding is a very popular method to produce composite parts which are axisymmetric such as composite pipes, tubes, tanks, cylinders, spheres that are fabricated using filament winding technique. In this study, raw material based geopolymer resin composites reinforced by continuous glass fiber were used for fabrication and synthesized by different types of raw materials which is fly ash, silica sand, white clay, kaolin and pozzolonic. The effects of different types of raw materials on the product were investigated. The compressive properties of the resulting composite were determined on an Instron Universal Testing under compression mode and the results shows white clay for vertical position gives the highest strength.
Authors: Romisuhani Ahmad, Abdullah Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri, J. Nur Ain
Abstract: Geopolymer results from the reaction of a source material that is rich in silica and alumina such as kaolin with alkaline activator solution. Geopolymers are inorganic aluminosilicate materials that possess relatively good mechanical properties and good thermal behavior but they exhibit failure behavior similar to brittle solids. This limitation may be readily overcome through the formation of ceramics of geopolymer and the addition of filler to improve strength and toughness. This paper review and summarize the current knowledge on geopolymer ceramic with addition of fine filler materials and the effect of filler content on the physical and mechanical characteristic of clay based geopolymer ceramic.
Authors: Antoni, David Wiyono, Agie Vianthi, Permana Putra, Gary Kartadinata, Djwantoro Hardjito
Abstract: The eruption of Sidoarjo mud volcano that has been taken place since 2006 had caused significant damage to the local social environment, and until now there is no immediate solution that can be offered. Utilization of the Sidoarjo mud as construction material recently has gained some advancement by calcination of the mud, that make the previously inert material to become more reactive and to be more viable for its use as cement replacement or geopolymer precursor. This paper reports an on-going study to utilize the Sidoarjo mud as precursor of geopolymer by investigating the influence of particle size on the reactivity of the calcined Sidoarjo mud. Furthermore, durability properties of Sidoarjo mud-based geopolymer was also studied. The results show that making finer the mud particles by milling in longer period, using a rod-mill drum for 8 hours, can increase the reactivity of the mud. Compressive strength of geopolymer mortar can increase up to 155% when compared to the ones based on milling time of only 2 hours. Durability properties of sulphate acid resistance and chloride penetration are comparable to fly ash-based geopolymer, while the shrinkage measurement showing higher value.
Authors: Ridho Bayuaji, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Shahanema Francis, J.J. Ekaputri, Triwulan, S. Junaedi, Hamzah Fansuri
Abstract: This paper provides a report about the results of an investigation carried out to understand the effect of Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA) on the mechanical properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete to access the concrete performance development. Fly ash (350kg/m3) and MIRHA (0%, 3%, and 7%) were used as the source materials to replace cement, NaOH and Na2SiO3 solutions used as the alkaline liquids for the medium of polymeric reaction. In addition, sugar was used as retarder, as well as three different types of curing regime (ambient, external exposure or oven curing regime). The concrete mixing procedure was adjusted to obtain the proper homogeneity of dry materials and wet ones. In this project, a number of mechanical tests have been conducted including the pull-out test, compressive strength test, flexural strength test, and modulus of elasticity test. It was then observed that the performance of mechanical properties of MIRHA-fly ash geopolymer concrete improved with the use of oven curing as the curing regime for the concrete samples.
Authors: Daud Yusrina Mat, Hussin Kamarudin, C.M. Ruzaidi, Azlin Fazlin Osman, Mustafa Al-Bakri
Abstract: The effect of fly ash based geopolymer in epoxy layered silicates nanocomposites was studied using a compressive test. A series of nanocomposites with fly ash based geopolymer 1-7phr content was prepared. Qualitative evaluation of the three-dimensional shape of a fly ash based geopolymer surface and the origin was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the addition of fly ash at the beginning with lower content are showing lower compressive strength than nanocomposites without fly ash filled. However, compressive properties suddenly increased at 3phr of fly ash geopolymer content compared to nanocomposites without fly ash. This indicated the blending of fly ash geopolymer in nanocomposites system have the ability for further studies.

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