Life Cycle Analysis on Carbon Emission Reduction and Energy Saving by Using Slag as Alternative Materials in Cement Production


Article Preview

The carbon emission and energy consumption of using slag as a secondary raw material in cement production was quantified and analyzed in this study. Moreover, the carbon emission reduction and energy saving potential of slag-based cement (SBC) production were identified based on the comparative analysis between SBC and traditional Portland cement (TPC). The results showed that the carbon emission of SBC is about 6.73%, which was lower than that of TPC. Compared with TPC, the energy consumption of SBC is slightly increased by 2.05%. In addition, it was found that the combustion of coal and the power generation were the main sources for carbon emission in the life cycle of slag utilization, which account for 83.39% and 10.16% of the total carbon emission. Therefore, reducing the consumption of energy and increasing the recovery rate of waste heat in cement production were the most effective methods to improve the environmental performance of SBC. In addition, the improvement potential analysis was carried out for SBC. The results indicated that if the recovery rate of waste heat could reach to that of the international advanced level (15.6%), the carbon emission and energy consumption of SBC would be reduced by about 2.20% and 5.71%, respectively. If the proportion of renewable energy utilizationin power generation increased to that of the average international level, the carbon emission and energy consumption of SBC would be declined by 5.26% and 9.35% respectively.



Edited by:

Yafang Han, Jiatao Zhang and Jianguo Zhu






Y. Li et al., "Life Cycle Analysis on Carbon Emission Reduction and Energy Saving by Using Slag as Alternative Materials in Cement Production", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 814, pp. 411-417, 2015

Online since:

March 2015




* - Corresponding Author

[1] ChinaCement Association: China Cement Almanac 2012 (China building materials press, Beijing2013).

[2] K.M. Lee, et al: Estimation of the environmental credit for the recycling of granulated blast furnace slag based on LCA. Resources, Conservation and Recycling Vol. 44 (2005), p.139.

DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.11.004

[3] J.R. Prusinski, M.L. Marceau and M.G. VanGeem: Life cycle inventory of slag cement concrete. Proceedings of the 8th international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete. CANMET/ACI. (2006), p.1.

DOI: 10.1016/0262-5075(89)90106-1

[4] Dh.P. Van, B.N. De: Environmental impact and life cycle assessment (LCA) of traditional and green, concretes: literature review and theoretical calculations. Cement and Concrete Composites Vol. 34 (2012), p.431.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.01.004

[5] M.E. Boesch, S. Hellweg: Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment. Environmental Science &Technology Vol. 44 (2010), p.9143.

DOI: 10.1021/es100771k

[6] X.L. Song, J.X. Yang and J.R. Liu: Environmental BenefitsAssessment of Blast FurnaceSlagRecyclingforGreenBuildingMaterialsBasedonLCA. China Population, Resources and Environment Vol. 22 (2012), p.51.

[7] W.G. Shen, Z. Cai and Z.M. Liu: Humble Talk about Low Carbon Dioxide Emission Technique for Cement-concrete Industry. Cement Guide for New Epoch Vol. 4 (2008), p.1.

[8] Ecoinvent Centre: Ecoinvent data v2. 0 Final Reports Ecoinvent 2000 (Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Switzerland2007).

[9] L.L. Ma: The Life Cycle Assessment of Plasterboard. Master Dissertation, Beijing University of Technology (2012), p.26.

[10] W.T. Wang: The Study On Life Cycle Assessment Of Advances Steel-making In China. Master Dissertation, Beijing University of Technology (2005),. p.29.

[11] Editorial Board of Year Book of China Transportation & Communications: Year Book of China Transportation & Communications2010 (Year Book of China Transportation & Communications Agency, Beijing2010).

[12] H. Li: Analysis of Coal Transportation Development Situationduring the 12th Five-year Plan. Comprehensive Transportation Vol. 3 (2011), p.13.

[13] L.P. Ma, Z.H. Wang and X.Z. Gong: Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Two Types of Freight Transport on City Roads. New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2006), p.3.

[14] X.Z. Gong, Z.R. Nie and Z.H. Wang: Development and Application of Chinese Database for Materials Life Cycle Assessment. Materials China Vol. 30 (2011), p.1.

[15] X.H. Di: Several Fundamental Researches in the Life Cycle Assessment for Mineral Resources and Materials. Doctor Dissertation, Beijing University of Technology (2005), p.67.

[16] W. Tian, Q. Zhang: Rotary kiln incineration of industrial waste: advantage and problem. The Proceedings of the China Association for Science and Technology (2006), p.70.

[17] T. Engin, V. Ari: Energy auditing and recovery for dry type cement rotary kiln systems–A case study. Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 46 (2005), p.551.

DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2004.04.007

In order to see related information, you need to Login.