The Mechanics of Superplastic Forming - How to Incorporate and Model Superplastic and Superplastic-Like Conditions


Article Preview

Much work has been carried out in understanding the mechanics of superplasticity (SP). Some of the present challenges in SP forming revolve around the use of lower forming temperatures and faster strain rates, which may involve pushing the process boundaries to incorporate “superplastic-like” forming – perhaps also in materials with non-optimized microstructures. For process optimization there is a requirement to be able to model both within the SP and superplastic-like processing window in an integrated way. From a mechanics point of view the presence of high rate sensitivity is often seen as the key factor in controlling SP response. However, changes in phase distribution and grain morphology, or the accumulation of damage (cavitation) may compromise this assumption. The paper will examine the range of validity of some SP constitutive models and how they may be adapted to take into account processing routes that may incorporate superplastic-like and more conventional SP deformation modes.



Materials Science Forum (Volumes 838-839)

Edited by:

Eiichi Sato, Goroh Itoh, Yoshimasa Takayama, Koichi Kitazono, Koji Morita, Takaomi Itoi and Junya Kobayashi




O. I. Bylya et al., "The Mechanics of Superplastic Forming - How to Incorporate and Model Superplastic and Superplastic-Like Conditions", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 838-839, pp. 468-475, 2016

Online since:

January 2016




* - Corresponding Author

[1] M. Guo, J. Liu, M. J Tan, B. Chua, Microstructure evolution in Ti-6Al-4V during superplastic-like forming, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 81 (2014) pp.1000-1005.


[2] J. Liu, J. Edberg, M.J. Tan, L.E. Lindgren, S. Castagne, A.E.W. Jarfours, Finite element modelling of superplastic-like forming using a dislocation density base model for AA5083, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. Vol. 21 (2013) 025006, pp.1-24.


[3] O.V. Sosnin, B.V. Gorev, A.A. Ratnichkin, Mechanics of Superplasticity and its Relationship with High Temperature Creep. Siberian Magazine of Physics and Technology, Vol. 4, (1993) pp.15-23. (in Russian).

[4] K.A. Padmanabhan, R.A. Vasin, F.U. Enikeev, Superplastic flow: phenomenology and mechanics, Pub. Springer Verlag, (2001).

[5] J. Lin, F.P.E. Dunne, Modelling grain growth evolution and necking in superplastic blow forming, Intl. Journal Mech. Sci. 43 (2001) pp.595-600.


[6] E. M. Taleff, L.G. Hector Jr., J. R. Bradley, R. Verma, P. E. Krajewski: Acta Mater. Vol. 57 (2009) pp.2812-2822.

[7] M. Albakri, F. Abu-Farha, M. Khraisheh: Int. J. Mech. Sci. Vol. 66 (2013) p.55–66.

[8] T. Seshacharyulu, S.C. Medeiros, W.G. Frazier, Y.V.R.K. Prasad, Hot working of commercial Ti–6Al–4V with an equiaxed α+β microstructure: materials modeling considerations, Materials Science and Engineering A248 (2000) p.184–194.


[9] A.K. Ghosh, C.H. Hamilton, Mechanical behavior and hardening characteristics of a superplastic Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Metall. Trans. A. Vol. 10A (1979) pp.699-706.


[10] I.F. Anoshkin, G.A. Bochvar, I.S. Livanov, V.A. Pol'kin, V.I. Moiseev , Metallography of Titanium Alloys (1980), Moscow, Metallurgy. 464p.

[11] O.I. Bylya, M. K Sarangi, N.V. Ovchinnikova, R.A. Vasin, E.B. Yakushina, P.L. Blackwell, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 63012033 (2014).

[12] O.I. Bylya, B.K. Pradhan, E.B. Yakushina, P.L. Blackwell, Modelling of active transformation of microstructure of two-phase Ti alloys during hot working / Letters on Materials 4 (2), (2014) pp.124-129.


[13] Y.U. Rabotnov, Creep Problems in Structural Members, (North-Holland Series in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. ). Pub. Amsterdam/London. North-Holland, (1969).


[14] Y. Q Wu, K.S. Zhang, Numerical and experimental analysis of superplastic-like uniaxial tensile necking of coarse-grained LY-12, Mechanics of Materials 35 (2003) p.1127–1138.


[15] Smirnov, O. M, Metal Working in a Superplastic State. Mashinostroyenie, Moscow (1979) (in Russian).

[16] A. Aksenova, E.N. Chumachenko, A.V. Kolesnikov, S.A. Osipov Determination of optimal gas forming conditions from free bulging tests at constant pressure, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 217 (2015) p.158–164.