Experimental and Numerical Study of Macrosegregation in a 160 Steel Ingot


Article Preview

Large steel ingots are the important material for the equipment manufacturing industry. It is still difficult to predict and control the macrosegregation in ingot. In this paper, the cooling curves at the surface of ingot and temperature variation of the mold were measured. The carbon distribution was measured through the local region dissection of ingot. Then, based on the definite the heat transfer coefficient at the interface of mold/ingot, a two-phase model with consideration of the motion of equiaxed grains is applied for the prediction of macrosegregation in 160-t steel ingot formed during the solidification. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient at the interface of mold/ingot decreases sharply after starting solidification and then varies slowly. Negative segregation at the bottom of ingot forms due to the interaction of solidification interface and equiaxed grains deposition during solidification. The positive segregation appears in the riser with thanks to the solidification shrinkage and the floating enriched solute. Finally, the results of the predicted and the measured are in good agreement.



Edited by:

Prof. Yafang Han, Ying Wu, Guangxian Li, Fu Sheng Pan, Runhua Fan and Xuefeng Liu




Z. H. Duan et al., "Experimental and Numerical Study of Macrosegregation in a 160 Steel Ingot", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 850, pp. 299-306, 2016

Online since:

March 2016




[1] B C Liu, Q Y Xu, T Jing, et al, Advances in multi-scale modeling of solidification and casting processes. JOM, 2011, 63(4): 19-25.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-011-0054-x

[2] W T Liu, C C Xie, M Bellet, et al, 2-Dimensional FEM modeling of macrosegregation in the directional solidification with mesh adaptation. Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett. ), 2009: 233-240.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1006-7191(08)60094-0

[3] M H Wu, A Ludwig, Modeling equiaxed solidification with melt convection and grain sedimentation—I: Model Description. Acta Materialia, 2009, 57: 5621-5631.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2009.07.056

[4] J Ni, C Beckermann, A volume-averaged two-phase model for transport phenomena during solidification. Metall. Trans. B, 1991, 22: 349-361.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02651234

[5] J Li, M H Wu, A Ludwig, A Kharicha, Simulation of macrosegregation in a 2. 45-ton steel ingot using a three-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed model. In. J. Heat. Mass. Transfer. 2013: 0017-9310.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.08.079

[6] A Kumar, M Zaloznik, H Combeau, Prediction of the equiaxed grains structure and macrosegregation in an industrial ingot: comparison with experiment. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Sci. Appl Math 2010, 2 (4): 140-148.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12572-011-0034-y

[7] H Combeau, M Zanloznik, S Hans, et al, Prediction of macrosegregation in steel ingots: Influence of the motion and the morphology of equiaxed grains. Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2009, 40B: 298-304.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-008-9178-y

[8] W S Li, B Z Shen, H F Shen, Experimental and numerical studies of solidification in a 53 ton steel ingot. J. Metals. Metall, 2013, 1(1): 1-5.

[9] W S Li, H F Shen, B C Liu, Modelling of macrosegregation in steel ingots: benchmark validation and industrial application. Steel Research Int. 2010, 81: 994-1000.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.201000038

[10] B Thomas, I Samarasekera, J Brimacombe, Mathematical model of the thermal processing of steel ingots: Part I. Heat flow model. Metall. Trans. B, 1987, 18B: 119-130.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02658437

[11] J P Gu, C Beckermann, Simulation of convection and macrosegregation in a large steel ingot. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1999, 30A: 1357-1366.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-999-0284-5